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Integrated Science

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Biology Labs Biology Review INB  Nomenclature Student Page  

Integrated Science is our accumulated understanding of the natural world.
Concepts taught in this course involve the study of anatomy, biology, chemistry, earth/solar system, ecology, genetics, herpetology, limnology, and physics.  These topics are integrated, showing how all things work together to sustain life.

 "Lil' Erik" (My Nephew) Photo by Mrs. King 2002


Scroll down the page to review topics taught in class throughout the year

Acid & Base


Periodic Table Flash Cards

Alternative Fuels


Physics Central

Frog Dissection

Rock Cycle

Atoms & Molecules  

Genesis in Education


Atoms,Molecules,Water & pH   Science FCAT

Beyond Books

Interactive Science 

Science News

Biological & Chemical War


Science U



Significant Figures


Man Eating Bugs

The Lab

Electromagnetic Spectrum


Units of Measure


Earth's Photo Gallery

Visualize Science

Extreme Science

Pathfinder Science Weather

Famous Scientists

Periodic Table of Elements

What is Matter?

The Scientific Method



Modern science deals only with physical quantities, 

which we can express in quantitative rather than qualitative terms.  

bullet The scientific method begins with careful observations of some phenomenon, 
bullet followed by a hypothesis, which tries to explain the observations. 
bullet Scientists then test the hypothesis through experimentation.  If the hypothesis correctly predicts the results of the experiments and it is general enough  to correctly predict behavior not previously observed it may be accepted as theory.  
bullet A theory with an extremely wide range of proven validity and application is called a physical law. 

Laws are generalizations, principles, or patterns in the natural world. Theories are explanations of those generalizations. 

Laws are discovered. Theories are developed.



Models Science Fair
  Scientific Method
Nature of Science

* Writing Reports


Scientists in History

                                                                                                        by Eric Weisstein
Eric Weisstein's World of Biography

Einstein Inventions
Einstein's Theory Tested  
Free Patents Online Scientific Biography


Galileo's Inventions

A Pendulum ClockGalileo's Telescope

Galileo Galilei

Though the study of science and the natural world goes back to pre-history, its tradition of scientific processes and methods were first introduced in the late 1500's by Galileo.

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Measurement in Science

All measurements in Science need to be METRIC


Mega Converter

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Graphing in Science



You are expected to graph in science to show your results.  Make sure you understand the basics of graphing line graphs, lines of best fit, scatter plots, and spread sheets. 

You will need to know the difference between the independent variable and dependent variable and label your graph properly.

Free Graph Paper Line Graphs & Scatter Plots
Graph Paper Science Graphs
Graph Paper Printer Program Spreadsheets

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Some Common Temperatures

  to the nearest whole degree


Material Point




copper m.p. 1356 1083 1981
gold melt pt 1336 1063 1945
aluminum m.p. 933 660 1219
lead melt pt 601 327 621
H2O bp1atm 373 100 212
chicken body 313 40 104
human body 310 37 98.6
room temp. 293 20 68
H2O m.p. 273 0 32
zero F 292 -19 0
mercury m.p. 234 -39 -38
C = F 233 -40 -40
absolute zero 0 -273 -460


*Remember, there is no such thing as negative in the Kelvin scale or K, it's just K.

Kelvin scale begins at absolute zero, (-273.15oC).

Absolute Zero is the coldest temperature, that means it's the temperature at which molecules (of any substance) have no more kinetic energy they can give up.


Converting Temperature Scales


Celsius to Fahrenheit

F= (9/5 x C) + 32

Fahrenheit to Celsius

C = 5/9(F-32)

Celsius to Kelvin

K = C+ 273



Thermometers & Gauges



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Matter, Energy and the Chemical Processes of Life

Strand A: The Nature of Matter

See General Chemistry page



Conservation of Mass Lab


Conservation of Mass Lab Conservation of Mass Lab

The law of conservation of mass states that energy is not be created or destroyed, it only changes form.  The students above are experimenting to test this law.


pH Lab



Organic Lab

Testing for organic compounds in foods


Mole Day Project

It's a Mole of moles Hydrogen

Tin Copper 

6.02 x 1023


Chromatography Lab

coming soon


Conservation of Mass

Organic Chemistry

Density Lab

pH Tutorial

Molecule of the Month

What is pH

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Nuclear Energy

SC.A.2.4.3, SC.A.2.4.4

Coming Soon

Alpha & Beta Particles

Nuclear/ Radioactive Decay & Half-life

Nuclear Fission & Fusion


  Manhattan Project

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Newton's Laws

Strand C: Force and Motion

See the Physical Science page.

This is also where kinematics comes into play. Kinematics is the science of describing the motion of objects using words, diagrams, numbers, graphs, and equations. One dimensional means in motion in a straight line.  Therefore, when we talk about one dimensional kinematics, we will use graphs on a x-axis.  Motion can be forward or backward.

Mouse Trap Cars


Mouse Trap Guide


Mouse Trap Photos

Newton's Laws



Simple Machines

Levers & Pulleys





Physical Science

Levers II

Rube Goldberg

Friction & Brakes Simple Machines
Machines *

Mechanical Models

Simple Machines II

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Work, Energy and Power

Strand B: Energy

Work is measured in Joules

 work = force x distance       W = F x d     

Power is measured in watts

power = work/time   P = W/t  

Physical Science

The Physics Classroom


Roller Coaster Physics

Integrated Science I  Roller Coaster Lab Integrated Science I  Roller Coaster Lab Integrated Science I  Roller Coaster Lab

Potential Energy

PE = mgh

where m = mass, g = acceleration due to freefall(9.8 m/s2) and h = height

Kinetic Energy

KE = 1/2mv2,
where m is the mass of object and v is the speed of the object.


Energy, Matter and Fusion Interactive

How Roller Coasters Work

Force, Power, Torque & Energy


Free Fall


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Electromagnetic Spectrum

Stand B: Energy

electromagnetic energy (electromagnetic radiation) is energy that moves through space or a material as a wave. Electromagnetic energy includes light, radio waves, infrared radiation, and x-rays. Electromagnetic energy travels at the speed of light, or 300,000 kilometers per second (186,000 miles per second).

Speed of Light in Vacuum: 3x10x8 m/s, 186,000 miles/sec
Speed of Light in Water: 2.25x10x8 m/s, 140,000 miles/sec
Speed of Light in Diamond: 1.24x10x8 m/s, 77,000 miles/sec

Frequency is the  property of a wave that describes how many wave patterns or cycles pass by in a period of time. Frequency is often measured in Hertz (Hz), where a wave with a frequency of 1 Hz will pass by at 1 cycle per second.




Visible Light

Acronyms, like ROY G BIV,  help us to remember the spectrum in order. 

700 nm                                                                                                   400nm

Red          Orange          Yellow           Green            Blue          Indigo         Violet

Pick an element from the menu to see its spectral signature.


The rainbow is really a continuous spectrum that shows us the different energies of light (from red to blue) present in visible light. But the electromagnetic spectrum encompasses more than just optical light - it covers all energies of light extending from low-energy radio waves, to microwaves, to infrared, to optical light, to ultraviolet, to very high-energy X- and gamma-rays.

White light is the combination of red, blue and green light.  As seen in the image above, adding different combinations of light, like red and blue to make magenta, will display varied frequencies of the light spectrum. 

Plants respond differently to frequencies (or colors) of light. This is why we use a plant grow light in the classroom terrarium.

Let's put this light thing into perspective using optics. 

By combining red, blue and green light in certain ways we can perfectly simulate any color the human eye can see.  The colors you see on this computer screen is an example of how video equipment leverages the color combinations. Most video equipment offers 256 intensities each of red, green & blue (RGB) light.  By altering the intensity of red, blue or green light would provide you with over 16 million combinations... way more colors than you can see with your own eyes.


Light passing through a convex lens bends toward the center


Light passing through a concave lens bends away from the center, or appears to spread out


Atomic Absorption

Ordering the Spectrum

Building a Telescope

Electromagnetic Waves Spectra of Atoms
Light & Lenses (optics) The Science of Light
Optics in Nature Virtual Labs & Simulations

Flame Lab

Flame Lab 2008

More coming soon



Doppler Effect & Sound Waves


Doppler ~ Activity GPS Systems

 Doppler Effect

Remote Sensing (NWS)


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Electricity & Magnetism


Pushing & Pulling Forces of an Electric Field

Batteries in Series and Parallel

TV's & Magnetism

Electrical Circuits

Van de Graaff

How Electric Guitars Work

Voltage Circuit Simulator

Types of Electric Cells




Photoelectric and Photovoltaic






Ohm's Law

V = I R

Voltage = Current x Resistance


V - Voltage applied to the circuit, in volts (V)


I - Current flowing in the circuit, in amperes (A)


R - Resistance in the circuit, in ohms    

When two bulbs are connected in series charges must pass through both light bulbs to complete the circuit.


When devices are connected in parallel, charges have more than one path to follow.  The circuit can be complete even if one light bulb burns out.



A naturally occurring magnetic rock, composed of iron based material called magnetite.


Electromagnetic Field


Faraday's Law

An electric  current can be produced 

in a circuit by a changing magnetic field.

Electromagnetic Field

Making a Compass



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Earth's Geologic Time

           Geologic Time Scale

The Rock Cycle

Courtesy of the Mineralogical Society of America

Courtesy of the Mineralogical Society of America


Rocks & Minerals

Rock and Mineral Lab Sedimentary, Metamorphic & Igneous Rocks

Testing Physical Properties


Atlas of Rocks

Rock Cycle

Digging A Hole to China?

 Rock Cycle II

Earth Resources

Rockin' Rocks Resources 


Rocks & Minerals


Rocks & Minerals II



Design and build a bridge that can withstand an earthquake


Earthquakes Pangaea

Formation of Pangaea

Paleomap Project
Hazards Program Plate Tectonics
NASA Tsunami



Wonderworks Orlando, FL

Weather Page

Clouds & Precipitation National Weather Service
FL Satellites Pacific Disaster Center
Jet Stream Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
  Weather Central for Kids
Hurricanes Weather Maps


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Maps in Science



Topographical Maps

Geology Tools Samples
Google Maps TerraServer
Map Builder Topographic Maps
Mapping Resources World Map

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The Solar System

Strand E: Earth and Space

The words solar system refer to the Sun and all of the objects that travel around it. This includes planets, natural satellites like the Moon, the asteroid belt, comets, and meteoroids.   

The Sun is the center of the solar system. It contains 99.86% of all of the mass in our solar system. Consequently, it exerts a tremendous gravitational pull on planets, satellites, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids.

Visit the page dedicated to our solar system.


Alien Invasion Project


Explore Mars


Nuclear Energy

Solar System


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Newton's 3rd Law

Photo copyright 2002, Jason Vick

Rocket Car Lab

Beginner's Guide to Model Rockets Newton's Laws
Military & Hydro-Ordnance Paper Tiger Rocket Plans
Model Rockets Rocketry Challenge


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Human Anatomy

Strand F: The Processes of Life

Cartilage and Bone Lab Practical  

Human Anatomy

Physiology in Space

Human Organ Systems Spongy Bone

Organ System Chart


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Strand G: How Living Things Interact With Their Environment

Comparing independent and dependent variables to find cause and effect patterns


TerrAqua Lab 

Acid Rain Flash Cards


Microcosms in Biosphere


Pest Management



Fast Plants

TerrAqua Column

[ Path of radiation incident on Earth's surface ]


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Strand H: The Nature of Science

sea star Classification, or taxonomy, is a system of categorizing living things. There are seven divisions in the system:

bullet Kingdom
bullet Phylum or Division
bullet Class
bullet Order
bullet Family
bullet Genus
bullet Species

Kingdom is the broadest division. There is no agreement about the number of kingdoms, but most scientists support either a four-kingdom (Animalia, Plantae, Protista, and Monera) or five-kingdom (Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Monera, and Fungi) system. For our purposes, we will use the five-kingdom system.

See Biology page for more Taxonomy Information.

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Barn Owl Tytonidae tyto alba

Owls are Birds of Prey, which means that they must kill other animals to survive. Their diet includes invertebrates (which include insects: spiders, earthworms, snails and crabs), fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds and other small mammals such as rats, moles, voles, etc.

Owl pellets are masses of bones, teeth, hair, feathers, scales, and insect skeletons.  These materials are blocked from reaching the intestines by the pyloric opening.  They are produced and regurgitated, not only by owls, but also by hawks, eagles, and other predatory birds that swallow their prey whole or in large pieces.  Because owls swallow their prey whole, each owl pellet contains virtually complete skeletons of the animals the owl ate the day before the pellet was formed.  By examining the bones of the animals eaten, the types of animals eaten, and the number of each species, the varied diet of an owl can be determined as well as the ecosystem in which it hunted its prey.


Owl Pellet Dissection

Skeletal Reconstruction

Reconstruction of skeletal structure


Skeletal Charts
Barn Owl Calls bird  
Owl Lab bone rat
Virtual Lab mole skull



American Roach

Cockroach Anatomy



Frog Dissection

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Amphibia
Order Anura
Family Ranidae
Genus Rana
Species catesbeiana


Frogs belong to the class Amphibia, which means "double life."

The 3 orders that make up that class are


Caudata (salamander and newts)


Anura (frogs and toads)


Apoda (legless caecilians)


Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. 2003. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: http://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed: 2003).


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History of the Microscope

The invention of the microscope has allowed us to investigate a whole new world of tiny objects.

Microscopes magnify and resolve, which  are two very different things.

Magnification  \mag-ne-fe-'ka-shen\ n 1. apparent enlargement of an object 2. the ratio of image size to actual size
A magnification of "100x" means that the image is 100 times bigger than the actual object.

Resolution  \rez-e-loo-shen\ n 1. clarity, sharpness 2. the ability of a microscope to show two very close points separately              

resolution example below

2D structured illumination figure

Scientific Photography through the Microscope

Prepared  Specimen Slides



Recording Your Field of View, aka FOV


Stains used for Gram + and Gram - techniques



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 Cell Review

Strand F: Processes of Life

Cell Theory

1.  All organisms are composed of one or more cells, and the life processes of metabolism and heredity occur within these cells.

2.  Cells are the smallest living things, the basic units of organization of all organisms.

3.  Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell.

click for larger image of specialized human cells

Cell Models 

Inside a Cell

Exocytosis Demonstration

Inside Cell                          Outside Cell




Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase


Cell Cycle - Mitosis Tutorial Onion Root Tip
DNA Tour of Basics
DNA Fingerprinting

Whitefish Mitosis



In Meiosis 1, chromosomes in a diploid cell resegregate, producing four haploid daughter cells. It is this step in Meiosis that generates genetic diversity.

Meiosis 2 is similar to mitosis. However, there is no "S" phase. The chromatids of each chromosome are no longer identical because of recombination. Meiosis II separates the chromatids producing two daughter cells each with 23 chromosomes (haploid), and each chromosome has only one chromatid.

Meiosis Tutorial

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Mendelian Genetics

Gregor Mendel


Mendelian Genetics


Mendelism Overview
  Mouse House

Introduction to M.G.

Practice Problems


Corn Snake Genetics

Pantherophis guttatus (formally: Elaphe guttata)

Hypomelanistic / Wild Type

 Snake #5 Miami Phase  Hypomelanistic (back) & Albino Amelanistic (front)  Baby Corn Snakes

Corn Snake Genetics Lab

Snake Research


Fruit Fly

Drosophila melanogaster




Mendelian Genetics

Genetics Wizard

Mendelism Overview


Mouse House

Introduction to M.G.

Practice Problems

Mendel's Original Paper

The Science Index

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Record Keeping in Genetics



Punnett Square

Male: BBRr:   Br  Br  br  br

Female: BbRRBR  BR  bR  bR



























This dihybrid matrix reveals the F2 from a breeding pair of corn snakes, Pantherophis guttatus.

This Punnett square could be used to find the genetic frequencies for flowers, dogs, etc.


Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium

p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

We will use two alleles, A and a, with the dominant allele represented by the letter p and the recessive allele by the letter q.

p = the frequency of the dominant allele (represented here by A)
q = the frequency of the recessive allele (represented here by a)

p2 = frequency of AA (homozygous dominant)
2pq = frequency of Aa (heterozygous)
q2 = frequency of aa (homozygous recessive)


Mathematical Definitions:

Allele Frequencies = p (A) + q (a) = 1

Genotypic Frequencies = (p+q)2

p2 (AA) + 2pq (2Aa) + q2 (aa) = 1


This law assumes random mating in each generation and no disruption of allele frequencies or genotypic frequencies. If the end result is not 1, there is no equilibrium.

Possible reasons for population diversity (or lack of equilibrium): genetic drift, mutation, migration, and meiotic drive.

Example 1

Genetics Lab

Example 2

Mode of Inheritance

Example 3






































Df =


Circle one

Reject or Accept 

S = sum of

Df  = degrees of freedom

c2 = Chi Square


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