Name: 
 

EOC Practice: Heredity



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell are composed of DNA.  What is the main function of DNA?
a.
provides energy
c.
transports macromolecules
b.
directs cellular activity
d.
provides structural support
 

 2. 

Which statement describes the structure of DNA?
a.
a single strand of amino acids
c.
a double strand of nucleotides
b.
a single strand of nucleotides
d.
a double strand of amino acids
 

 3. 

DNA is the information storage molecule of the cell.  This information provides the instructions to produce molecules used for cellular activities.  which diagram best illustrates the translation of DNA’s encoded instructions?
mc003-1.jpgmc003-2.jpg
a.
illustration A
c.
illustration C
b.
illustration B
d.
illustration D
 

 4. 

Actinomyocin-D was found to be effective in preventing the growth of rapidly dividing tumor cells by blocking DNA replication.  Scientists discovered Actinomyocin-D  also caused side effects like hair loss and a decrease in the number of red blood cells.  Which statement best explains the reason that Actinomyocin-D caused the side effects?
a.
Actinomyocin-D alters the environment so that hair and red blood cells are killed.
c.
Actinomyocin-D targets tumor cells, and the side effects are due to the release of chemicals from the tumor cells.
b.
Actinomyocin-D affects all cell division, so healthy cells are also unable to divide
d.
Actinomyocin-D kills the cells that support the hair cells and red blood cells leading to the death of these cells.
 

 5. 

Growth rate, length of bones, muscle structure, and hormone levels may all affect human height.  Each of these factors is controlled by many different proteins in body cells.  What type of gene relationship controls human body height?
a.
polygenic
c.
codominant
b.
dominant
d.
incompletely dominant
 

 6. 

DNA is replicated during the cell cycle.  Which event is needed to ensure that the normal number of chromosomes is present in both daughter cells?
a.
G1 phase
c.
mitosis
b.
G2 phase
d.
cytokinesis
 

 7. 

mc007-1.jpg
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 8. 

DNA transcribes the information for protein synthesis in mRNA.  Where does transcription take place?
a.
In the nucleus
c.
attached to ribosomes
b.
in the cytoplasm
d.
bound to amino acids on tRNA
 

 9. 

RNA polymerase facilitates transcription of the genetic information in the DNA molecule into mRNA for protein synthesis.  What part of the DNA molecule codes for proteins?
a.
a phosphate group
c.
a five-carbon sugar
b.
a specific base pair
d.
a nucleotide sequence
 

 10. 

Proteins are produced during translation.  Which molecule carries the protein code that is translated?
a.
DNA
c.
rRNA
b.
mRNA
d.
tRNA
 

 11. 

Hemophilia is a sex-linked genetic disease.  If a male with hemophilia and a homozygous normal female have a female child, what is the probability that the child will be a carrier for hemophilia?
a.
0%
c.
50%
b.
25%
d.
100%
 

 12. 

In humans, the allele for having a straight thumb is dominant to the allele for having a curved thumb.  A male is homozygous dominant for straight thumbs, and a female has curved thumbs.  What is the probability that their offspring has curved thumbs?
a.
0%
c.
50%
b.
25%
d.
100%
 

 13. 

In snapdragons, if white flowers are crossed with red flowers, all the offspring have pink flowers.  When two pink snapdragons are crossed, some offspring have white flowers, some have red flowers, and some have pink flowers.  Which inheritance pattern do snapdragon flowers exhibit?
a.
sex-linked trait
c.
incomplete dominance
b.
polygenic trait
d.
codominance
 

 14. 

Baldness is the loss of human hair on the head and is a recessive sex-linked trait.  a male with the recessive genotype and a female heterozygous for the genotype have children.  What is the probability that a female child will inherit the baldness trait?
a.
0%
c.
50%
b.
25%
d.
100%
 

 15. 

The pedigree below shows the inheritance of a trait in humans.
mc015-1.jpg

Which pattern of inheritance is shown in this pedigree?
a.
polygenic
c.
simple dominance
b.
codominance
d.
recessive sex-linked
 

 16. 

The pedigree chart below shows the transmission of a genetic trait over several generation.
mc016-1.jpg

What type of inheritance pattern does the pedigree display?
a.
autosomal dominant
c.
sex-linked dominant
b.
autosomal recessive
d.
sex-linked recessive
 

 17. 

The illustration below shows a pedigree with an autosomal recessive mutation. mc017-1.jpg
What is the possibility that the male in the F2 generation will express the mutation?
a.
25%
c.
75%
b.
50%
d.
100%
 

 18. 

The diagram shows the stages of meiosis.
mc018-1.jpg
What process results in egg cells with genetic compositions that are different than the female parent?
a.
replication of chromosomes during interphase prior to meiosis.
c.
Crossing over of chromosomes during prophase I.
b.
Realignment of chromosomes during metaphase II.
d.
Separation of chromosomes  during anaphase I.
 

 19. 

Gametes contain half the number of chromosomes that other cells in the body contain.  When are gametes produced in organisms?
a.
during meiosis
c.
during replication
b.
during mitosis
d.
during transcription
 

 20. 

Why is meiosis important for sexual reproduction?
a.
Meiosis increases the number of body cells.
c.
Meiosis reduces the chance of genetic variation
b.
Meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes
d.
Meiosis increases the chance of desirable mutations.
 

 21. 

Below is a picture of five horses from a herd of wild horses in Wyoming.  Large populations of animals that reproduce sexually display different characteristics. 
mc021-1.jpg
Which statement best explains the differences in the appearance of the horses in this population?
a.
Different characteristics are due to the egg and sperm each having two recessive genes.
c.
The traits carried by the male parent are dominant over the traits carried by the female parent.
b.
Different traits come from independent assortment of chromosomes in gamete formation.
d.
Genes in each generation of a population mutate and create different physical characteristics.
 

 22. 

Chronic myeloid leukemia is caused by a chromosomal mutation.  An example of this mutation is shown in the diagram below.
mc022-1.jpg
What type of mutation causes chronic myeloid leukemia?
a.
deletion
c.
inversion
b.
duplication
d.
translocation
 

 23. 

A human karyotype highlighting  chromosome 21 is shown in the diagram below.
mc023-1.jpg
Which process is attributed to causing an additional 21st chromosome in this human karyotype?
a.
duplication
c.
nondisjunction
b.
monosomy
d.
translocation
 

 24. 

Genetic disorders can be caused by changes in chromosome structures.  A type of change in chromosome structure is shown in the diagram.
mc024-1.jpg
This diagram displays what type of chromosomal change?
a.
deletion
c.
inversion
b.
duplication
d.
translocation
 

 25. 

Some American farmers are growing crops with seeds that have been genetically modified to release substances toxic to weeds.  These modified crops reduce the need to spray crops with weed-killing chemicals.  The concern about the use of genetically modified seeds is the chance that the weeds could become resistant to the toxin released by the crops.  Scientists have discovered toxin-resistant weeds in areas that are growing genetically modified crops of soybeans and cotton.  How might genetically modified crops affect agriculture in the United Stated?
a.
Genetically modified crops could contaminate the soil with toxins.
c.
Genetically modified crops could increase food prices an cause American farmers to lose money.
b.
Genetically modified crops could cause weeds to become a difficult problem to control.
d.
Genetically modified crops could be the future of agriculture, and resistant weeds will be an accepted side effect.
 

 26. 

Through scientific research, genetic technologies have advanced to study of gene sequences.  Which is a main benefit of gene therapy technology?
a.
The ability to cure genetic diseases by replacing defective genes
c.
Understanding how human genes turn on and off to make carbohydrates
b.
The ability to genetically design organisms that have never existed
d.
Making genetically superior plants and animals to benefit the entire world
 

 27. 

Antibiotics are frequently used to treat bacterial infections.  Antibiotics function in different ways to interfere with important biological functions in bacteria.  The antibiotic nalidixic acid functions to block the enzyme responsible for uncoiling an coiling DNA.  How would the action of nalidixic acid allow this chemical to be effective in treating bacterial infections?
a.
Nalidixic acid causes the cells to divide uncontrollably.
c.
Nalidixic acid produces mutations in the DNA and results in cell death.
b.
Nalidixic acid is toxic to the cells and causes the cells to burst.
d.
Nalidixic acid prevents the production of proteins needed for cell division.
 

 28. 

Hereditary information is passed from parents to offspring through gametes.  Which gene relationship is most likely to result in a portion of offspring that are all recessive males?
a.
a polygenic trait
c.
a sex-linked trait
b.
a dominant trait
d.
a codominant trait
 

 29. 

Scientists frequently treat cells with chemicals to produce mutations in DNA to study cellular functions.  Which cellular process that carries out the heredity instructions would be affected by a mutation?
a.
photosynthesis
c.
aerobic respiration
b.
protein synthesis
d.
anaerobic respiration
 

 30. 

Which event during meiosis introduces genetic variation between parents and offspring?
a.
condensation of the chromatin to form distinct chromosomes
c.
crossing over of homologous sequences between matching chromosomes
b.
replication of DNA to make multiple copies of parent genetic material
d.
migration of chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell along microtubules
 

 31. 

A diagram of crossing over, which occurs during prophase 1 of meiosis, is shown.
mc031-1.jpg
What is the genetic significance of crossing over during meiosis?
a.
Chromosomal exchange of genetic material greatly increases genetic variation.
c.
The chances of daughter cells receiving abnormal chromosome numbers increase.
b.
Only two of the four gamete cells produced will contain identical chromosomes.
d.
Chromosomes that cross over are less stable than those without new gene combinations.
 



 
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