Name: 
 

EOC Practice Inquiry, Technology, Enginering and Math



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Students did an experiment to determine if a substance contained glucose.  To determine if glucose was present, they added 5mL of Benedict’s  solution to a test tube of corn surup and then heated the mixture.  A change to a brick red color was a positive indicator for glucose.  Which piece of equipment provides the most precise measurement of the volume of the Benedict’s solution?
mc001-1.jpg
a.
test tube
c.
beaker
b.
graduated cylinder
d.
flask
 

 2. 

Students are investigating how nutrients affect the rate of plant growth.  Before beginning the investigation, the students determine how they will change the independent variable and measure the plant growth.  Which variable should be different in each experimental group?
a.
type of plant
c.
amount of fertilizer
b.
amount of water
d.
quantity of sunlight
 

 3. 

A student team begins a project to design a water-purifying system that removes chemical and biological impurities from pond water.  The team started the following design process:

1. Brainstorm design requirements for purifying water.
2. Generate ideas on techniques of purifying water.
3. Evaluate ideas generated by the team.

What should the students do for step 4?
a.
Evaluate costs of purifying water.
c.
Build a water-purification prototype.
b.
State a procedure to build a model.
d.
Select a water-purifying idea to pursue.
 

 4. 

Bats use sound waves for navigation during flight and to find prey.  The sound waves emitted by bats bounce off objects, enabling them to sense the location and distance of an object.  Sound waves are also used by humans in sonar devices for finding depths of oceans and ships at sea.  Scientists have developed an artificial plastic that bends sound waves so they do not bounce back to a sonar device.  Currently this material is being considered for use in military ships. What is another benefit this material could provide?
a.
The material could be used in buildings to reduce energy loss.
c.
The material could be used in buildings to reduce internal noise.
b.
The material could be used in food packaging to prevent spoiling.
d.
The material could be used in sports equipment to prevent injury.
 

 5. 

A new food technology may extend the shelf life of food. Tests show that a combination of boiling water and microwaves preserves food longer than traditional canning in boiling water alone. Applying microwaves will be an additional step in processing food with the new technology. In what way will this new technology affect the cost and benefit of food  processing
a.
Cost will increase and benefit will increase.
c.
Cost will decrease and benefit will increase.
b.
Cost will increase and benefit will decrease.
d.
Cost will decrease and benefit will decrease.
 

 6. 

Vitamin A deficiency can result in diseases affecting normal eyesight. Rice is a grain that is low in vitaimin A, and individuals living in countries where rice is a major component of the diet are at risk for developing vitamin A deficiency. A genetically modified form of rice called golden rice has been produced and contains the gene for the vitamin A precursor. Which experimental design would best allow scientists to determine if a golden rice is effective in preventing vitamin A deficiency?
a.
Give golden rice to 10 people and determine if their eyesight is normal.
c.
Ask 50 people who have impaired vision to eat golden rice and determine if their vision improves.
b.
Have 50 people eat golden rice and measure changes in the amount of vitamin A in their blood.
d.
Let 100 people choose to eat regular rice or golden rice and determine which people have normal eyesight.
 

 7. 

A medical company is developing a device that allows the company to monitor the blood pressure of elderly people in their homes. Which test group would provide the most accurate information about the ability of older people to use this device?
a.
elderly people with high blood pressure
c.
people in a range of ages with high blood pressure
b.
elderly people without high blood pressure
d.
people in a range of ages without high blood pressure
 

 8. 

A scientist recorded the precipitation and temperature at eh Cimarron National Grassland for an entire year. The results are shown in the graphs below.
mc008-1.jpg



The vegetation in the Cimarron National Grassland most likely grows the fasted during which months?
a.
March and April
c.
July and August
b.
May and June
d.
September and October
 

 9. 

In humans, white blood cells defend the body against infection. Different types of white blood cells respond to specific challenges. The percentages of these cells in the circulatory system during healthy conditions are represented in the graph below.

mc009-1.jpg

What percentage of white blood cells in the circulatory system responds to pollen in the air?
a.
4%
c.
30%
b.
7%
d.
60%
 

 10. 

The graph below shows a typical bacterial growth curve.

mc010-1.jpg

What is happening at Point 3 in the graph?
a.
The bacteria have excess nutrients available, but the rapid rate of division is not noticeable because of the small population.
c.
The bacteria are dividing rapidly, and they have an abundance of nutrients available.
b.
The bacteria have used up the majority of their nutrients, and they are dividing at the same rate they are dying.
d.
The bacteria have no more nutrients, and they are dying in large amounts.
 

 11. 

In humans, unattached earlobes are coded for by a gene A. Attached earlobes are coded for by gene a. If an AA father and an Aa mother have children, what could be the possible genotype(s) of the children?
a.
AA only
c.
AA or Aa
b.
Aa only
d.
AA or aa
 

 12. 

In humans, freckles result from gene F, while a lock of freckles results from gene f. If an Ff father has a child with an ff mother, what is the probability of the child inheriting an F gene?
a.
25%
c.
75%
b.
50%
d.
100%
 

 13. 

Biologists Schleiden and Schwann developed the cell theory which states that all organisms are made of cells and that the cell is the fundamental unit of life. Which is an example of research that extended Schleiden and Schwann’s findings?
a.
Virchow determined that all cells come from preexisting cells.
c.
Hooke determined that cork from oak trees was made of “boxes” that he called cells.
b.
Needham concluded that organisms developed in broth that had been boiled.
d.
Leeuwenhoek viewed bacteria and protists through a microscope and referred to the single cells as “animalcules.”
 

 14. 

A standard model of the mechanism of inheritance has linked genes and traits for decades. Based on Mendel’s research, this model was expanded and refined with the discovery of chromosomes and DNA. Research continues to modify the model. Which discovery about the behavior of genes forced the most significant re-evaluation of this standard model of inheritance?
a.
The pattern of non-genetic methylation markers on DNA molecules modifies the amount of expression of alleles present in cells.
c.
When an allele does not show complete dominance, heterozygous individuals express a form of the encoded trait neither entirely dominant nor entirely recessive.
b.
Many traits show more than two forms in a species because of the availability of more than two alleles for the trait in species gene pools.
d.
Traits which modify body structure can be acquired during the lifespan of an individual, but they cannot be passed on to offspring.
 

 15. 

In 1993, scientists identified short(~20 base pair) nucleotide sequences called microRNAs(miRNA) in eukaryotic cells. It was not until 2000 that scientists understood that miRNAs function by binding to complementary mRNA sequences and disrupt their expression. Which phrase best extends the understanding of a cellular process by this discovery?
a.
the regulation of cells entering cytokinesis
c.
the transport of proteins through the cell membrane
b.
the repair of mutations passing during transcription
d.
the regulation of genes by blocking protein-building instructions
 

 16. 

Students are comparing plant growth with and without fertilizer. All plants will be grown at the same temperature with the same about of sunlight and water. The growth of each plant will be measured every five days. What component fo this experiment would be classified as a dependent variable?
a.
the growth of the plants
c.
the amount of water given to the plants
b.
if the plants received fertilizer
d.
the amount of sunlight the plants receive
 

 17. 

A student observed a plant near a window growing toward the window. The student hypothesized that environmental conditions affect the growth of plants. The table shows the student’s protocol for an investigation.
mc017-1.jpg

What should the student do for step 7?
a.
Develop a conclusion.
c.
Repeat the controlled investigation.
b.
Investigate multiple variables.
d.
Compare the results with a published work.
 

 18. 

When conducting a scientific investigation, what should be done after a testable hypothesis has been established?
a.
Research the information used to form the hypothesis.
c.
Compare the hypothesis woth the hypotheses of other scientists.
b.
Perform the experiments designed to test the hypothesis.
d.
Report the results of the observations that led to the hypothesis.
 

 19. 

Students monitoring a pond ecosystem collect rain in several rain gauges positioned around the pond. The students measure the volume of water collected in each gauge after a storm to document the amount of rainfall the ecosystem receives. Which tool would be best to use to accurately measure the amount of water collected in each rain gauge?
a.
petri dish
c.
medicine dropper
b.
glass beaker
d.
graduated cylinder
 

 20. 

Students compare the size of bacterial colonies grown on two different agar plates. The illustration below shows colonies grown on Agar Plate 1 and Agar Plate 2.

mc020-1.jpg

Which ruler would most accurately measure the diameter of the colonies on Agar Plate 1 and Agar Plate 2?
a.
a ruler that measures to the nearest millimeter
c.
a ruler that measures to the nearest decimeter
b.
a ruler that measures to the nearest centimeter
d.
a ruler that measures to the nearest meter
 

 21. 

A student is instructed to measure 1mL of a solution during a biology laboratory session. Which tool should the student use to perform the task?
a.
an Erlenmeyer flask
c.
a test tube
b.
a graduated cylinder
d.
a pipette
 

 22. 

At the beginning of an experiment, students measured the height of a plant three times. Their measurements are shown in the table below.

mc022-1.jpg

It was determined that the actual height of the plant was 15.6 cm. Which student’s measurements are the most accurate and precise to the actual height of the plant?
a.
Student 1
c.
Student 3
b.
Student 2
d.
Student 4
 

 23. 

Students counted the population of trees in a forest to determine the number of four species. The actual number of trees in the forest area and each student’s count are in the table.

mc023-1.jpg

Which student had the most accureate count of tree species?
a.
Student 1
c.
Student 3
b.
Student 2
d.
Student 4
 

 24. 

A study by a group of scientists measured the number of seafood species lost since 1950. The data from the study is shown in the graph below.

mc024-1.jpg

Based on the data, the scientists concluded that all seafood species populations will collapse by the year 2050. Other scientists have questioned this claim. What evidence from the study best defends the initial scientist’s conclusion?
a.
No seafood population data was collected before 1950.
c.
Seafood populations may decline rapidly between 2010 and 2050.
b.
The long-term trend conflicts with the data from 1950 to 2010.
d.
The data shows a general decrease in seafood populations after 1950.
 

 25. 

A scientist in a research facility develops a procedure for a carefully controlled investigation. The experiments are repeated several times, and all of the data collected is analyzed and used to form a conclusion. What is the most likely next step the scientist should take to ensure that the conclusion is unbiased?
a.
The scientist should submit the investigation to be published in a scientific journal.
c.
The scientist should share the investigation information with the scientists in the same research facility.
b.
The scientist should have the investigation repeated by an outside research company.
d.
The scientist should compare the experimental data with data from scientists performing similar research.
 

 26. 

A pharmaceutical company developed a new drug (Drug A) to replace an existing drug (Drug B) that had been used in treating a disease for 25 years. The hypothesis was that patients would have fewer side effects from Drug A that from Drug B. The company appointed an independent coordinator to select a group of people with the disease for testing. The coordinator randomly divided the people into two equal groups. One group received Drug A, and the other group received Drug B. At the end of the study, the coordinator revealed to the company researchers that Drug A treated the disease as well as Drug B, and the patients had fewer side effects.

Why is the conclusion from this study free of bias?
a.
No new drug had been tested for the disease in 25 years.
c.
Neither the test subjects nor the company knew which group received the new drug.
b.
The study contained a dependent and independent variable.
d.
The hypothesis that Drug A had fewer side effects than Drug B was supported by the data.
 

 27. 

A student grows three groups of bean plants. One group of bean plants receives type A fertilizer every 10 days, one group receives type B fertilizer every 10 days, and one group does not receive any fertilizer. All other variables are held constant. Based on average height, the student concludes that type A fertilizer was more effective than type B, and both brands are more effective than growing plants without fertilizer. Which statement best explains why this conculsion is free of bias?
a.
The control group was included in the experimental design.
c.
The type of investigation makes it impossible to show bias in the conclusions.
b.
The number of fertilizer brands tested was too small to allow bias.
d.
The independent variable was clearly defined, and a dependent variable was accurately collected.
 

 28. 

A group of students is given a data table that shows the population of native black and brown beetles counted in the same area during a four-week period. The data trend shows the brown beetle population is gradually increasing, and the black beetle population is rapidly decreasing. Based on the population trend of the beetles, four students offer different explanations of the data.

mc028-1.jpg
Which two students offer explanations that are most likely possible based on the data trend?
a.
Student 1 and Student 3
c.
Student 2 and Student 4
b.
Student 1 and Student 4
d.
Student 3 and Student 4
 

 29. 

Plants in two experimental trials grew to a similar height. The plants in one trial were given more water than the plants in the other trial. All other variables were held constant. A scientist studying the results concluded that plant height is determined by inheritance rather than environmental factors. What other conculsion also supports the results in this experiment?
a.
The amount of soil nutrients is unknown.
c.
Both trials lacked an essential amount of water.
b.
Sunlight has the greatest effect on plant height.
d.
The amount of water has little effect on plant height.
 

 30. 

Students compared the activity rate of pepsin and trypsin, two enzymes. Pepsin is found in the stomach and trypsin is found in the small intestine. The data collected are illustrated in the graph. Based on the data, students made conclusions about the activity of the two enzymes.

mc030-1.jpg

Which conculsion could not be determined based on the information in the graph?
a.
Pepsin and trypsin have an optimal pH for activity.
c.
Pepsin is active only at a pH around 3, and trypsin is active only at a pH around 9.
b.
Pepsin and trypsin are most active at different pH ranges.
d.
Pepsin is most active in an acidic environment, and trypsin is most active in an alkaline environment.
 

 31. 

Students are performing an experiment to study how colored light affects the rate of photosynthesis in plants. Which laboratory tool would be most useful in this experiment?
a.
pH meter
c.
carbon sensor
b.
oxygen senson
d.
digital thermometer
 

 32. 

An engineering team is interested in exploring the possibility of using sound to repel insects that harm crops. Their design process proceeded as follows:

1. They identified that insecticides are environmentally problematic and that alternatives          are needed.
2. They thought about alternatives and decided that specific sounds would repel insects.
3. They built a powerful all-weather speaker system, they placed the speaker in a field, and they tested the effects of different sounds on insects.

Which step should the engineering team have taked before step 3?
a.
phrasing their investigation properly in terms of the scientific method
c.
performing market surveys of the openness of farmers to their solution to the problem
b.
experimentally testing other alternatives to insecticides apart from sound
d.
building a small-scale prototype and testing it on a small number of insects under controlled conditions
 

 33. 

The graph below shows the food intake of various species of grazing animals.

mc033-1.jpg

Which statement correctly describe the feeding pattern of one of these animals?
a.
Cattle are the least dependent on grasses.
c.
White-tailed deer are the most dependent on forbs.
b.
Tallow deer feed primarily on grasses.
d.
Sheep feed equallly on forbs and browse species.
 

 34. 

In humans, cleft chins are coded by gene C, while non-cleft chins are coded by gene c. A male and female couple has a 25% chance of producing a child with a non-cleft chin and a 50% chance of producing children heterozygous for the trait. What are the genotypes of the male and female?
a.
CC and Cc
c.
Cc and Cc
b.
CC and cc
d.
Cc and cc
 

 35. 

In pea plants, tall height results from gene T, while short height results from gene t. If a TT plant produces offspring with a tt plant, the offspring must have which genotype?
a.
TT
c.
Tt
b.
tt
d.
TTtt
 

 36. 

Gregor Mendel estabilshed the foundation of genetics with his findings about dominant and recessive inheritance. Which example best represents a direct extension of Mendel’s scientific research?
a.
Barbara McClintock discovered that genes can change locations on chromosomes.
c.
Reginald Punnett developed a diagram to predict all possible outcomes of genetic crosses.
b.
Cohen and Boyer isolated a gene from a frog and inserted the gene into DNA of bacteria.
d.
Watson and Crick determined that DNA is a double-helix molecule with strands of linked nucleotides.
 

 37. 

A researcher observing an ecosystem asks the question, “What is the flow of energy among the organisms present in this ecosystem?” The researcher observes the interactions of the organisms in the ecosystem in order to construct a food web. The researcher concluded that the data collected is insufficient to produce a complete food web for the ecosystem. The table of organism interactions on which the researcher’s conclusion is based is shown below.

mc037-1.jpg
Based on the researcher’s observations, why is the conclusion valid?
a.
Many species have only one food resource.
c.
The producers in the food web have not been observed.
b.
Organisms from only two Kingdoms were observed.
d.
The organisms come from aquatic and terrestrial environments.
 

 38. 

A student examines data collected by a researcher on several different organisms.
mc038-1.jpg

Which conclusion can best be defended based on this data set?
a.
Organisms 2 and 3 are producers because they release carbon dioxide.
c.
Organism 1 is a decomposer because it released oxygen.
b.
Organisms 2 and 3 are consumers because they release carbon dioxide.
d.
Organism 1 is a consumer because it releases oxygen.
 

 39. 

The graph below shows the changes in a deer population in a park over many years.
mc039-1.jpg

Some scientists conclude that the deer population in the park is still decreasing. Other scientists conclude that the deer population is now increasing. What evidence best allows scientists to conclude that the population is still increasing?
a.
The yearly change in population decreased with time.
c.
The population trend changed over the last few years of data.
b.
The overall trend of the graph shows a population change.
d.
The most recent data indicated a scientific error in measurement.
 

 40. 

Scientists know that Earth’s climate has changed over time. The evidence includes the study of tree rings, ice cores, ocean sediments, and glacier lengths. Evidence indicates that Earth is presently becoming warmer. Some scientists conclude that the global warming is from human activities, and other scientists conclude that the warming is a result of Earth’s natural cycles. Which concept is best illustrated by this information?
a.
Some scientific conclusions are biased, based on the scientist’s opinion.
c.
Repeated experimentation provides the correct conclusion.
b.
Scientists may interpret the results from an investigation differently.
d.
Appropriate tools are needed to gather accurate data.
 



 
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