Name: 
 

Biology EOC Baseline Practice Test & Midterm Growth Model



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Students did an experiment to determine if a substance contained glucose.  To determine if glucose was present, they added 5mL of Benedict’s  solution to a test tube of corn syrup and then heated the mixture.  A change to a brick red color was a positive indicator for glucose.  Which piece of equipment provides the most precise measurement of the volume of the Benedict’s solution?
mc001-1.jpg
a.
test tube
c.
beaker
b.
graduated cylinder
d.
flask
 

 2. 

A medical company is developing a device that allows the company to monitor the blood pressure of elderly people in their homes. Which test group would provide the most accurate information about the ability of older people to use this device?
a.
elderly people with high blood pressure
c.
people in a range of ages with high blood pressure
b.
elderly people without high blood pressure
d.
people in a range of ages without high blood pressure
 

 3. 

In human testing of new medicines, double-blind testing in generally used. Neither the researchers nor the patients know which patients are receiving the medicines and which are receiving medically neutral substitutes. How does this procedure help to eliminate bias in conclusions reached based on such tests?
a.
Double-blind testing ensures that at least some patients will show positive results from the testing.
c.
Double-blind testing prevents researcher from observing results they would expect and reduces patient response to any factor but the medicine itself.
b.
Double-blind testing ensures that all experiments include a responsibly constructed control group.
d.
Double-blind testing prevents researcher from forming hypotheses that favor the results they want and patients from selecting whether they want the medicines of the substitutes.
 

 4. 

A scientist is researching the effect long-term exposure to sunlight has on cell reproduction.  Which scenario extends the current understanding of this relationship?
a.
a culture of liver cells exposed to different pH levels over a 10-day period
c.
a culture of skin cells exposed to different temperatures over a 50-day period
b.
A culture of muscle cells exposed to different nutrients over a 30-day period
d.
a culture of brain cells exposed to different electrical impulses over a 75-day period
 

 5. 

When designing a scientific investigation, which of the following should be identified first?
a.
lab equipment needed
c.
useful analysis software
b.
appropriate sample size
d.
a testable hypothesis
 

 6. 

Which tool would be best to accurately observe the details of organelles in a cell?
a.
electron microscope
c.
dissecting microscope
b.
magnifying glass
d.
compound light microscope
 

 7. 

A group of students in a biology class measured the length of 5 earthworms and recorded their measurement in the table below.

Worm Number
Actual Length (cm)
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
1
8.5
8.0
8.5
8.6
8.5
2
5.5
5.5
6.0
4.8
5.5
3
7.0
7.0
7.1
7.0
6.9
4
6.8
7.0
7.0
6.5
7.0
5
8.3
8.0
8.3
8.5
8.3

Which student made the most accurate measurements of the earthworms?
a.
Student 1
c.
Student 3
b.
Student 2
d.
Student 4
 

 8. 

In 1928 Alexander Fleming observed the mold Penicillium natatum growing in a Petri dish.  Also in the dish was the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.  Fleming observed that no bacteria colonies were found growing in the area where the Penicillium nantatum was.  Which conclusion is best defended by Fleming’s discovery?
a.
Penicillium nantatum destroys all colonies of Staphylococcus aureus.
c.
Penicillium nantatum inhibits the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.
b.
Penicillium nantatum prevents the growth of all bacteria.
d.
Penicillium nantatum promotes the growth of certain bacteria colonies.
 

 9. 

A pesticide manufacturer claims that a new product will decrease the pest population 15% more than the current pesticide.  A population of 50 beetles of the same species is exposed to the new pesticide for a 10 week period.  A separate population of the same species of beetle is exposed to the same amount of the current pesticide for a 10 week period.  The data collected is sent to an independent research company to verify the results.  Which statement best explains how an independent research company verifies data to ensure unbiased results?
a.
The company compares the data given to similar investigations.
c.
The company sends out the data to another researcher to investigate.
b.
The company performs the same investigation and compare results.
d.
The company tests many types of pesticides and draws its own conclusions.
 

 10. 

A researcher discovers that a cell is using a particular molecule to store energy for time spans longer than several minutes.  Which two molecules could possibly be the type of molecule the researcher examined?
a.
ATP or ADP
c.
carbohydrate or lipid
b.
ATP or carbohydrate
d.
lipid or protein
 

 11. 

A graph showing the time stages of the cell cycle is shown below.
mc011-1.jpg
According to the information in the graph, the S phase
a.
lasts only one hour.
c.
is twice as long as the G1 phase.
b.
takes approximately 7 hours.
d.
takes half as much time as the  G1 phase.
 

 12. 

In pea plants, smooth peas (S) are dominant to dented peas (s), and yellow seeds (Y) are dominant to green seeds (y).  If a pea plant homozygous recessive for both traits is crossed with a pea plant heterozygous for both traits, what is the percent probability that the offspring will have dented green seeds?
a.
100%
c.
25%
b.
50%
d.
0%
 

 13. 

A science class investigated whether the acidity of water affects the growth of aquatic plants.  They set up three aquariums containing water of different acidities and placed the same amount and type of plant in each aquarium.  Data was collected on plant growth.  Which tool would best have helped the class determine at what acidity level the plants grew the best?
a.
graduated cylinder
c.
light meter
b.
pH meter
d.
temperature probe
 

 14. 

A research company wants to design a new type of artificial heart valve that will be less likely to be rejected by a person’s immune system.  Which step in the design process should the company perform before building a prototype of the heart valve?
a.
Find test subjects for the new heart valve.
c.
Conduct research on existing artificial heart valves.
b.
Determine how to manufacture the new heart valve.
d.
Evaluate the performance of the artificial heart valve.
 

 15. 

What is the cost benefit for a company producing a drought-resistant crop?
a.
The crop can be successfully raised in a wider range of climates.
c.
The crop can be grown in any type of soil.
b.
The crop will produce more each year.
d.
Farmers can plant the crop at any time of the year.
 

 16. 

A health care company is developing a new type of humidifier that will help alleviate symptoms associated with common allergies such as sore throat and dry sinuses.  a humidifier increases the amount of moisture in the air, thereby reducing allergy symptoms.  Which step will most help the company determine if its humidifier is more effective than humidifiers currently available.
a.
finding volunteers to use the new humidifiers
c.
giving away free humidifiers for the public to try
b.
determining the cost of producing the humidifiers
d.
testing the humidifiers in a controlled investigation
 

 17. 

Protein synthesis occurs on which cellular organelle?
a.
chloroplast
c.
mitochondrion
b.
ribosome
d.
nucleus
 

 18. 

Which is the most accurate description of a eukaryotic cell?
a.
moves using cilia
c.
produces food by photosynthesis
b.
contains a nucleus
d.
reproduces only by binary fission
 

 19. 

Amino acids are a structural component of which macromolecule?
a.
lipids
c.
carbohydrates
b.
proteins
d.
nucleic acids
 

 20. 

When Benedict’s solution is added to an unknown substance and then heated in a hot water bath, the solution turns an orange-brown color.  This indicates the presence of which molecule?
a.
lipids
c.
carbohydrates
b.
proteins
d.
nucleic acids
 

 21. 

How does the reduction in activation energy by an enzyme affect a chemical reaction?
a.
The products are not stable.
c.
Less energy is gained from the reaction.
b.
The reaction proceeds at a faster rate.
d.
The reaction is less efficient when the enzyme is present.
 

 22. 

What must occur during the cell cycle to ensure proper division of the chromosomes?
a.
The cell must grow in size.
c.
The DNA of the cell must replicate.
b.
The mitochondria must divide.
d.
The cell membrane must dissolve.
 

 23. 

What will most likely occur when a cell is placed into a saline solution that has a higher salt concentration than inside the cell?
a.
Water molecules will move into the cell.
c.
Salt molecules will move until the salt concentration is the same inside and outside of the cell.
b.
Salt molecules will move out of the cell.
d.
Water molecules will move until the salt concentration is the same inside and outside of the cell.
 

 24. 

Which diagram represents active transport?
mc024-1.jpg
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 25. 

In a grassland ecosystem, a certain species of predator preys mainly on large herbivores.  which would most likely result if there were a sudden decrease in the predator population?
a.
a decrease in primary consumer populations
c.
overgrazing of producers
b.
an increase in grassland biodiversity
d.
greater competition among predators
 

 26. 

A delay in warm spring weather in an ecosystem could result in decreased populations of primary consumers.  What would best explain the decrease in primary consumers?
a.
a decrease in the availability of producers
c.
a decrease in the local concentration of atmospheric oxygen
b.
an increase in competition with secondary consumers
d.
an increase i the activity of scavengers and decomposers
 

 27. 

Which would most likely increase the carrying capacity for a deer population in a forest ecosystem?
a.
a decrease in parasites
c.
a decrease in producers
b.
a decrease in predators
d.
a decrease in competitors
 

 28. 

Scientists hypothesize that the use of certain pesticides is causing a decline in the population of honeybees, which pollinate many fruit and vegetable plants.  How would a decline in the honeybee population most impact the environment?
a.
Populations of plants that reproduce asexually would decline.
c.
Production of some food crops would decrease.
b.
Populations of primary consumers would increase.
d.
Flowering plants would produce more nectar.
 

 29. 

The kudzu plant was imported in the United States as an ornamental plant and was later planted to help reduce soil erosion.  Kudzu is a vine that grows in a wide range of conditions and soil types.  Due to its rapid growth, the plant has taken over many native plant species, resulting in
a.
a decrease in biodiversity.
c.
an increase in surface runoff.
b.
a decrease in rate of cellular respiration.
d.
an increase in habitat for native species.
 

 30. 

The spotted owl is an endangered species found in the northwestern United States.  Which environmental condition would most likely lead to the extinction of the spotted owl?
a.
a drought that lasts one year
c.
the immigration of a new species of prey
b.
the clear-cutting of wildlife habitat
d.
an abnormally cold winter
 

 31. 

Which environmental disturbance would most likely result in lichens colonizing an area?
a.
the burning of a forest
c.
the melting of a glacier that exposes rock
b.
abandoning farm fields for many years
d.
clearing a meadow for new construction
 

 32. 

An energy pyramid is shown below.
mc032-1.jpg
As energy moves through the pyramid, the amount of available energy
a.
increases as the size of the organisms increases.
c.
remains the same as it is transferred to the next trophic level.
b.
doubles as it moves up each trophic level.
d.
decreases because it is released as heat into the environment.
 

 33. 

Clostridium botulinum bacteria grow well in low-oxygen environments, including improperly canned foods.  Which of these processes does Clostridium botulinum use to produce energy when in these low-oxygen environments?
a.
aerobic respiration
c.
photosynthesis
b.
anaerobic respiration
d.
chemosyntheses
 

 34. 

Photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy.  What form of chemical energy is used in cellular respiration?
a.
glucose
c.
chlorophyll
b.
oxygen
d.
carbon
 

 35. 

A diagram of the carbon cycle is shown below.
mc035-1.jpg
Which of these could cause the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to decrease?
a.
increased burning of fossil fuels
c.
increased numbers of producers
b.
increased numbers of decomposers
d.
increased respiration in animals
 

 36. 

Which diagram best represents a segment of a normal DNA molecule?
mc036-1.jpg
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 37. 

The main purpose of DNA replication is to
a.
capture sunlight.
c.
synthesize proteins.
b.
store energy.
d.
copy genetic information.
 

 38. 

Which sequence depicts the correct order of protein synthesis within a cell?
a.
DNA --> mRNA --> amino acids --> proteins
c.
DNA --> mRNA --> proteins --> amino acids
b.
DNA --> amino acids --> mRNA --> proteins
d.
DNA --> proteins --> amino acids --> mRNA
 

 39. 

In Bengal tigers, the allele for an orange coat is dominant to the allele for a white coat.  If a homozygous recessive tiger is crossed with a tiger heterozygous for coat color, what is the percent probability that one of the offspring will be orange?
a.
0%
c.
50%
b.
25%
d.
75%
 

 40. 

Which statement best explains the role of meiosis in the production of sex cells?
a.
to produce cells with half the DNA of the original cell
c.
to combine the DNA of two identical cells
b.
to produce cells that are genetically identical to each other
d.
to combine the DNA of two different cells
 

 41. 

the inheritance of a trait is shown in the pedigree below.
mc041-1.jpg
Based on the pedigree, what is the genotype of the male in the P1 generation?
a.
XCYc
c.
XCY
b.
XcYc
d.
XcY
 

 42. 

Which best explains how meiosis is contributing factor to genetic variation within a species?
a.
Meiosis reduces the number of mutations within an organism.
c.
Meiosis results in offspring that contain alleles from only one parent gamete.
b.
Meiosis produces daughter cells that will contain identical chromosomes.
d.
Meiosis allows for crossing over of chromosomes resulting in new gene combinations.
 

 43. 

Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) and Klinefelter’s syndrome (XXY) are both a result of an extra chromosome due to which type of mutation?
a.
deletion
c.
insertion
b.
frameshift
d.
nondisjunction
 

 44. 

What is the main ethical argument against the use of transgenic organisms, which have DNA from another organism?
a.
Transgenic organisms may cause unknown reactions in an ecosystem.
c.
Transgenic organisms may increase food production in many crops.
b.
Transgenic organisms may eliminate certain harmful diseases.
d.
Transgenic organisms may prevent harmful mutations.
 

 45. 

Walruses, found in he Arctic regions, have a six-inch layer of body fat.  River otters, found in rivers in parts of the United States and Canada, have a thick undercoat and an outer coat of coarse guard hairs.  these structures most likely help the walrus and the otter
a.
stay warm.
c.
move through their environment.
b.
transfer energy to offspring.
d.
resist infection.
 

 46. 

A certain species of lynx that lives in arctic regions has very large and furry paws.  Which best explains how these paws help the lynx adapt to its habitat?
a.
increase the lynx’s ability to catch prey
c.
help the lynx attract a mate
b.
provide camouflage for the lynx
d.
help the lynx maintain body temperature
 

 47. 

The diagram below show that different wading birds arose from a single ancestor.
mc047-1.jpg
Which of these does not provide an explanation for how different wading birds arose from a single ancestor?
a.
Random genetic changes occurred in the ancestral population.
c.
Environmental factors selected fro genetic change in the population.
b.
Gradual genetic divergence occurred between isolated populations.
d.
Dominant traits increased survival in the population more than recessive traits did.
 

 48. 

A section of rain forest was isolated from the rest of the rain forest by logging.  As a result, a population of beetles was isolated from other members of the same beetle species in the main rain forest.

Which of the following is the most likely effect on the isolated population of beetles?
a.
The isolated population will begin to breed with other beetle species.
c.
The isolated population will go extinct without interaction with beetles from the main rain forest if conditions in their isolated forest change.
b.
The isolated population may start to differ from the population of the same species living in the main rain forest if conditions in their isolated forest change.
d.
The isolated population will grow uncontrollably without competition from beetles in the main rain forest.
 

 49. 

A scientist studied a specific DNA segment from four different species. The table below shows the base sequence for each species.
mc049-1.jpg
According to the results above, which  two species are most closely related?
a.
Species 1 and 3
c.
Species 2 and 3
b.
Species 2 and 4
d.
Species 1 and 4
 

 50. 

The chart below shows the classification of four different organisms.
mc050-1.jpg
According to the classification chart, which two organisms are most closely related?
a.
Organisms 1 and 3
c.
Organisms 2 and 3
b.
Organisms 1 and 4
d.
Organisms 2 and 4
 

 51. 

Character of four organisms are shown in the table below.
mc051-1.jpg
Which organism is characterized as a prokaryote?
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 52. 

A student tested different foods for the presence of carbohydrates and proteins.  The student’s observations are shown in the table.
mc052-1.jpg
Which substances contained only carbohydrates?
a.
Potato and Apple
c.
Chicken broth and apple
b.
Potato and Yogurt
d.
Chicken broth and potato
 

 53. 

The  table below shows the results on four unknown substances from compositional tests for biological macromolecules.
mc053-1.jpg
Which unknown substance is most likely primarily composed of protein?
a.
Unknown 1
c.
Unknown 3
b.
Unknown 2
d.
Unknown 4
 

 54. 

The enzyme amylase begins reacting with starch during the chewing of food.  When the food enters the stomach, amylase is no longer active and starch decomposition stops.  When the food leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine, starch decomposition continues.  Why is amylase inactive in the stomach?
a.
The pH of the stomach is not optimum for amylase.
c.
The temperature of the stomach is too low for amylase to function.
b.
The concentration of sugar is great and inactivates amylase.
d.
The amylase has been degraded by the reaction with the starch molecules.
 

 55. 

A number of different drugs are available for use when studying the cell cycle and mitosis.  One of these, Vincristine, interferes with the formation of microtubules.  If microtubules are unable to form, which is the best explanation for how Vincristine affects mitosis?
a.
The cells would be unable to replicate the DNA to allow for cell division.
c.
The spindle fibers could not form to move the chromosomes to opposite poles during mitosis.
b.
The cells would be unable to undergo cytokinesis following the completion of mitosis.
d.
The chromosomes would not align at the center of the cell to allow for movement during mitosis.
 

 56. 

A representation of a cell membrane is shown in the diagram below.
mc056-1.jpg
How does the channel protein aid in the movement of particles through the cell membrane?
a.
It helps ions to bond and form larger compounds inside the cell.
c.
It enables ions to be removed from the cell against the concentration gradient.
b.
It causes ions inside the cell to attract water molecules from outside the cell.
d.
It allows ionic compounds to move freely through the membrane to reach equilibrium.
 

 57. 

Certain molecules are able to move across the cell membrane.  Which diagram shows the process of passive transport?
mc057-1.jpg
a.
image A
c.
image C
b.
image B
d.
image D
 

 58. 

The diagram below shows a macromolecule.
mc058-1.jpg
What is one of the functions of this macromolecule?
a.
energy storage
c.
regulating cellular functions
b.
structural support
d.
controlling immune responses
 

 59. 

Chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell are composed of DNA.  What is the main function of DNA?
a.
provides energy
c.
transports macromolecules
b.
directs cellular activity
d.
provides structural support
 

 60. 

mc060-1.jpg
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 61. 

The diagram shows the stages of meiosis.
mc061-1.jpg
What process results in egg cells with genetic compositions that are different than the female parent?
a.
replication of chromosomes during interphase prior to meiosis.
c.
Crossing over of chromosomes during prophase I.
b.
Realignment of chromosomes during metaphase II.
d.
Separation of chromosomes  during anaphase I.
 

 62. 

Why is meiosis important for sexual reproduction?
a.
Meiosis increases the number of body cells.
c.
Meiosis reduces the chance of genetic variation
b.
Meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes
d.
Meiosis increases the chance of desirable mutations.
 

 63. 

Below is a picture of five horses from a herd of wild horses in Wyoming.  Large populations of animals that reproduce sexually display different characteristics. 
mc063-1.jpg
Which statement best explains the differences in the appearance of the horses in this population?
a.
Different characteristics are due to the egg and sperm each having two recessive genes.
c.
The traits carried by the male parent are dominant over the traits carried by the female parent.
b.
Different traits come from independent assortment of chromosomes in gamete formation.
d.
Genes in each generation of a population mutate and create different physical characteristics.
 

 64. 

A human karyotype highlighting  chromosome 21 is shown in the diagram below.
mc064-1.jpg
Which process is attributed to causing an additional 21st chromosome in this human karyotype?
a.
duplication
c.
nondisjunction
b.
monosomy
d.
translocation
 

 65. 

There is broad public debate on the ethics of performing research on human stem cells to find cures for human diseases.  Which statement describes an ethical issue about the use of human stem cells for research?
a.
Some research focuses on stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos.
c.
Some research focuses on therapies that would only benefit the person from whom the stem cells came.
b.
Any treatments discovered through such research would likely be too expensive for many patients.
d.
Any treatment discovered through such research would be more effective in treating some patients than others.
 



 
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