Name: 
 

Flow of Matter and Energy Test



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

An energy pyramid is shown below.
mc001-1.jpg
As energy moves through the pyramid, the amount of available energy
a.
increases as the size of the organisms increases.
c.
remains the same as it is transferred to the next trophic level.
b.
doubles as it moves up each trophic level.
d.
decreases because it is released as heat into the environment.
 

 2. 

Photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy.  What form of chemical energy is used in cellular respiration?
a.
glucose
c.
chlorophyll
b.
oxygen
d.
carbon
 

 3. 

A diagram of the carbon cycle is shown below.
mc003-1.jpg
Which of these could cause the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to decrease?
a.
increased burning of fossil fuels
c.
increased numbers of producers
b.
increased numbers of decomposers
d.
increased respiration in animals
 

 4. 

The illustration below shows a desert food web.

mc004-1.jpg



Which animal receives the greatest amount of the original energy found in the producers?
a.
Quail
c.
Lizard
b.
Hawk
d.
Mountain Lion
 

 5. 

A grassland food web is shown here.

mc005-1.jpg


Which animal receives the least amount of energy in the food web?
a.
Frog
c.
Mouse
b.
Hawk
d.
Snake
 

 6. 

An energy pyramid is shown below.
mc006-1.jpg

How much of the energy consumed by the worm will likely be available to the frog?
a.
0.1%
c.
10%
b.
1%
d.
100%
 

 7. 

A food chain is shown below. 
    
     phytoplankton -->  zooplankton --> lobster --> octopus --> shark

Between which two organisms does energy directly flow?
a.
phytoplankton and shark
c.
lobster and shark
b.
zooplankton and shark
d.
octopus and shark
 

 8. 

A marine energy pyramid is shown below.
mc008-1.jpg
Which organism receives the most amount of energy from the producer?
a.
Arctic Cod
c.
Copepod
b.
Polar Bear
d.
Seal
 

 9. 

Students perform a scientific investigation using several types of bacteria grown in liquid cultures. After incubating the bacterial cultures in test tubes for several days, they observe some of the bacteria growing close to the surface of the liquid and other types of bacteria growing at the bottom of the test tubes. Which cellular process does the bacteria that grows close to the surface of the liquid culture most likely use to produce its energy?
a.
DNA replication
c.
aerobic respiration
b.
DNA transcription
d.
anaerobic respiration
 

 10. 

Some bacteria are able to perform aerobic respiration, and others are able to perform anaerobic respiration. Which step of respiration is found in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
a.
glycolysis
c.
citric acid cycle
b.
fermentation
d.
electron transport chain
 

 11. 

Students research two types of prokaryotes that survive in different environments.  Prokaryote 1 lives in an environment that enables aerobic respiration, and Prokaryote 2 lives in an environment that only allows anaerobic respiration. Which statement about the two types of prokaryotes is most true?
a.
Prokaryote 2 could be found living on the surface of human skin.
c.
Prokaryote 2 requires sunlight to be present for respiration to occur.
b.
Prokaryote 1 could be found living on the bottom of a hot spring.
d.
Prokaryote 1 produces more energy during respiration than Prokaryote 2.
 

 12. 

Energy is produced through the process of cellular respiration in all living organisms. Aerobic respiration occurs through the use of oxygen, while anaerobic respiration does not use oxygen. Which statement about anaerobic respiration is correct?
a.
Anaerobic respiration occurs in the chloroplasts of cells.
c.
Anaerobic respiration yields less energy than aerobic respiration.
b.
Anaerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria of cells.
d.
Anaerobic respiration is a more efficient process than aerobic respiration.
 

 13. 

A representation of a chemical reaction is shown below.

     glucose    +    oxygen    ---------->   carbon dioxide    +    water    +    energy


Which process is shown in this representation?
a.
phagocytosis
c.
aerobic respiration
b.
photosynthesis
d.
anaerobic respiration
 

 14. 

In gardening, compost piles can be classified as aerobic or anaerobic. The design of the compost pile determines whether the bacteria growing in the compost are aerobic or anaerobic bacteria. Which statement describes a compost pile in which bacteria perform anaerobic respiration?
a.
a compost pile that is covered and mixed frequently
c.
a compost pile that is uncovered and watered frequently
b.
a compost pile that is covered so gases cannot escape
d.
a compost pile that is uncovered so light can be absorbed
 

 15. 

Glucose produced during photosynthesis is used during cellular respiration to yield ATP. What is the original source of energy used during photosynthesis that is stored in glucose molecules?
a.
carbon dioxide
c.
heat
b.
oxygen
d.
light
 

 16. 

Cellular respiration and photosynthesis both require an energy source. What is the energy source for cellular respiration but not for photosynthesis?
a.
heat
c.
chemical potential
b.
light
d.
electrical potential
 

 17. 

A diagram of energy transfer for the process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration is shown below.
mc017-1.jpg
Which statement is true about the reactants in photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
a.
Photosynthesis requires energy; cellular respiration only produces energy.
c.
Photosynthesis requires sunlight and oxygen; cellular respiration requires glucose.
b.
Photosynthesis reactants are gases; cellular respiration reactants are solids.
d.
Photosynthesis reactants are low-energy molecules; cellular respiration reactants are high-energy molecules.
 

 18. 

Cellular respiration and photosynthesis occur in biological organisms. Which statement is most true about cellular respiration and photosynthesis?
a.
Cellular respiration requires energy and photosynthesis does not.
c.
Sugar and oxygen are reactants for photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
b.
Cellular respiration and photosynthesis produce the same products.
d.
ATP is a product of cellular respiration and starch is a product of photosynthesis.
 

 19. 

Which product of photosynthesis is a reactant for cellular respiration?
a.
light
c.
sugar
b.
carbon dioxide
d.
ATP
 

 20. 

Mitochondria and chloroplasts are important energy-related organelles. Below are diagrams of a chloroplast and mitochondria.

mc020-1.jpg

What is the main difference in the processes performed by these organelles?
a.
Mitochondria derive energy from food; chloroplasts use solar energy to make food.
c.
The energy produced by photosynthesis is stored as ATP; energy is stored as starch in cellular respiration.
b.
Chloroplasts need sunlight to perform cellular respiration; mitochondria do not need sunlight.
d.
Mitochondria perform photosynthesis in the inner membranes; chloroplasts perform respiration in the thylakoid.
 

 21. 

Plants perform gas exchange to provide reactants for both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Gas exchange takes place through pores on leaves called stomata. When a plant’s main metabolic activity switches from photosynthesis to respiration, how does the gas exchange of the stomata change?
a.
The stomata switch form ensuring the availability of oxygen to ensuring the availability of carbon dioxide.
c.
The stomata stop releasing gases into the environment and begin absorbing gases from the environment.
b.
The stomata switch from ensuring the availability of carbon dioxide to ensuring the availability of oxygen.
d.
The stomata stop absorbing gases from the environment and begin absorbing water vapor from the environment.
 

 22. 

A recent study has shown that human activities have affected the water cycle and caused rainfall patterns to change as shown on the figure below.
mc022-1.jpg
How do these changes in precipitation most likely impact the ecosystems of these areas?
a.
Areas of decreased precipitation have a decrease in biodiversity.
c.
Areas of increased precipitation become rain forests.
b.
Areas of decreased precipitation have an increase in biodiversity.
d.
Areas of increased precipitation become deserts.
 

 23. 

A representation of the carbon cycle is shown below.

mc023-1.jpg

If the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide were decreased, what would be the most direct effect on the ecosystems?
a.
Decomposers would decrease in number.
c.
Producers would have less material for making food.
b.
Some consumers would become photosynthetic.
d.
Consumers and producers would increase the rate of respiration.
 

 24. 

A representation of the nitrogen cycle is shown in the diagram below.
mc024-1.jpg

If nitrogen fixation by bacteria were to decrease, what direct effect would this have on the ecosystem?
a.
Consumers would not have a reactant for respiration.
c.
Plants could not make proteins because of the lack of ammonia in the soil.
b.
Producers would not have a reactant for photosynthesis.
d.
Animal growth would be limited from availability of ammonia in the soil.
 

 25. 

The burning of forests and fossil fuels released carbon into the carbon cycle. How could this impact an ecosystem?
a.
The amount of organic carbon in the soil could increase.
c.
The amount of organic carbon in the atmosphere could decrease.
b.
The amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in water could increase.
d.
The amount of carbon dioxide available for photosynthesis could decrease.
 

 26. 

Scientific evidence supports the reports that average global temperatures are increasing. If global temperatures continue to rise, the water cycle will be impacted. The figure below shows the water cycle.
mc026-1.jpg

Which statement best describes how increased global temperatures would affect a marine ecosystem.
a.
Sea levels would decrease and lead to a lack of habitat for coastal communities.
c.
The drop in sea levels would increase the number of fish and marine mammals closer to the coast lines.
b.
An increase in sea levels would damage the coral reefs and lead to decreases in biodiversity.
d.
There would be no change because the ocean communities are able to compensate and adapt to changes in water level.
 

 27. 

Scientists monitoring gases in the atmosphere have measured increases in carbon dioxide. The carbon cycle is shown in the diagram below.
mc027-1.jpg
Which two processes would cause an increase in carbon dioxide?
a.
respiration and the burning of fossil fuels
c.
respiration and the dissolving of carbon dioxide
b.
photosynthesis and the burning of fossil fuels
d.
photosynthesis and the decomposition of wastes
 

 28. 

People routinely use fertilizer containing nitrogen on their lawns and flower beds, while farmers use fertilizer to increase crop production. How does using fertilizer produce changes in the nitrogen cycle that impact the ecosystem?
a.
The increase in nitrogen available in the surface water allows for increased nitrogen uptake by plants.
c.
The microbes found in the soil become less active due to lack of oxygen.
b.
The amount of nitrogen added to the atmosphere by denitrification from wetlands decreases.
d.
The immobilization of nitrogen in groundwater decreases.
 

 29. 

The phosphorus cycle is shown in the diagram below.
mc029-1.jpg

Which process most increases the amount of phosphorus available for use in the ecosystem?
a.
Weathering of Rock
c.
Uptake by Plant Roots
b.
Sedimentation
d.
Dissolved Phosphate
 

 30. 

A scientist is researching the effect long-term exposure to sunlight has on cell reproduction.  Which scenario extends the current understanding of this relationship?
a.
a culture of liver cells exposed to different pH levels over a 10-day period
c.
a culture of skin cells exposed to different temperatures over a 50-day period
b.
A culture of muscle cells exposed to different nutrients over a 30-day period
d.
a culture of brain cells exposed to different electrical impulses over a 75-day period
 

 31. 

During exercise, muscle cell consume large amounts of energy.  Which organelles increase their activity in muscle cells during exercise to make more energy available?
a.
nuclei
c.
mitochondria
b.
ribosomes
d.
Golgi complexes
 

 32. 

A pesticide manufacturer claims that a new product will decrease the pest population 15% more than the current pesticide.  A population of 50 beetles of the same species is exposed to the new pesticide for a 10 week period.  A separate population of the same species of beetle is exposed to the same amount of the current pesticide for a 10 week period.  The data collected is sent to an independent research company to verify the results.  Which statement best explains how an independent research company verifies data to ensure unbiased results?
a.
The company compares the data given to similar investigations.
c.
The company sends out the data to another researcher to investigate.
b.
The company performs the same investigation and compare results.
d.
The company tests many types of pesticides and draws its own conclusions.
 

 33. 

A delay in warm spring weather in an ecosystem could result in decreased populations of primary consumers.  What would best explain the decrease in primary consumers?
a.
a decrease in the availability of producers
c.
a decrease in the local concentration of atmospheric oxygen
b.
an increase in competition with secondary consumers
d.
an increase i the activity of scavengers and decomposers
 

 34. 

A science class investigated whether the acidity of water affects the growth of aquatic plants.  They set up three aquariums containing water of different acidities and placed the same amount and type of plant in each aquarium.  Data was collected on plant growth.  Which tool would best have helped the class determine at what acidity level the plants grew the best?
a.
graduated cylinder
c.
light meter
b.
pH meter
d.
temperature probe
 

 35. 

What is the cost benefit for a company producing a drought-resistant crop?
a.
The crop can be successfully raised in a wider range of climates.
c.
The crop can be grown in any type of soil.
b.
The crop will produce more each year.
d.
Farmers can plant the crop at any time of the year.
 

 36. 

Scientists hypothesize that the use of certain pesticides is causing a decline in the population of honeybees, which pollinate many fruit and vegetable plants.  How would a decline in the honeybee population most impact the environment?
a.
Populations of plants that reproduce asexually would decline.
c.
Production of some food crops would decrease.
b.
Populations of primary consumers would increase.
d.
Flowering plants would produce more nectar.
 

 37. 

Which diagram represents active transport?
mc037-1.jpg
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 38. 

The  table below shows the results on four unknown substances from compositional tests for biological macromolecules.
mc038-1.jpg
Which unknown substance is most likely primarily composed of protein?
a.
Unknown 1
c.
Unknown 3
b.
Unknown 2
d.
Unknown 4
 

 39. 

The enzyme amylase begins reacting with starch during the chewing of food.  When the food enters the stomach, amylase is no longer active and starch decomposition stops.  When the food leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine, starch decomposition continues.  Why is amylase inactive in the stomach?
a.
The pH of the stomach is not optimum for amylase.
c.
The temperature of the stomach is too low for amylase to function.
b.
The concentration of sugar is great and inactivates amylase.
d.
The amylase has been degraded by the reaction with the starch molecules.
 

 40. 

Which macromolecule has a structure made up of an amino acid chain?
a.
carbohydrate
c.
protein
b.
nucleic acid
d.
lipid
 



 
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