Name: 
 

Heredity II



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

DNA is the information storage molecule of the cell.  This information provides the instructions to produce molecules used for cellular activities.  which diagram best illustrates the translation of DNA’s encoded instructions?
mc001-1.jpgmc001-2.jpg
a.
illustration A
c.
illustration C
b.
illustration B
d.
illustration D
 

 2. 

mc002-1.jpg
a.
A, G, A, G, T, C
c.
U, C, T, C, A, G
b.
T, C, T, C, A, G
d.
C, T, C, T, C, A
 

 3. 

DNA transcribes the information for protein synthesis in mRNA.  Where does transcription take place?
a.
In the nucleus
c.
attached to ribosomes
b.
in the cytoplasm
d.
bound to amino acids on tRNA
 

 4. 

RNA polymerase facilitates transcription of the genetic information in the DNA molecule into mRNA for protein synthesis.  What part of the DNA molecule codes for proteins?
a.
a phosphate group
c.
a five-carbon sugar
b.
a specific base pair
d.
a nucleotide sequence
 

 5. 

Proteins are produced during translation.  Which molecule carries the protein code that is translated?
a.
DNA
c.
rRNA
b.
mRNA
d.
tRNA
 

 6. 

In humans, the allele for having a straight thumb is dominant to the allele for having a curved thumb.  A male is homozygous dominant for straight thumbs, and a female has curved thumbs.  What is the probability that their offspring has curved thumbs?
a.
0%
c.
50%
b.
25%
d.
100%
 

 7. 

Baldness is the loss of human hair on the head and is a recessive sex-linked trait.  a male with the recessive genotype and a female heterozygous for the genotype have children.  What is the probability that a female child will inherit the baldness trait?
a.
0%
c.
50%
b.
25%
d.
100%
 

 8. 

The gene for flower color in some plants displays incomplete dominance.  In one plant species, the genotypes (RR) yield red petals, (rr) yield white petals, and (Rr) yield pink flowers.  What is the probability a cross between two plants heterozygous for flower color produce pink-flowering offspring?
a.
0%
c.
75%
b.
50%
d.
100%
 

 9. 

The pedigree below shows the inheritance of a trait in humans.
mc009-1.jpg

Which pattern of inheritance is shown in this pedigree?
a.
polygenic
c.
simple dominance
b.
codominance
d.
recessive sex-linked
 

 10. 

The pedigree chart below shows the transmission of a genetic trait over several generation.
mc010-1.jpg

What type of inheritance pattern does the pedigree display?
a.
autosomal dominant
c.
sex-linked dominant
b.
autosomal recessive
d.
sex-linked recessive
 

 11. 

The illustration below shows a pedigree with an autosomal recessive mutation. mc011-1.jpg
What is the possibility that the male in the F2 generation will express the mutation?
a.
25%
c.
75%
b.
50%
d.
100%
 

 12. 

The pedigree chart below show the transmission of a genetic trait over several generations.
mc012-1.jpg
which statement provides the most support that the trait is a sex-linked trait on the Y chromosome?
a.
The trait show up only in males.
c.
the trait is present in all generations.
b.
The trait is passed to females.
d.
The trait show up in all sons of affected males.
 

 13. 

Gametes contain half the number of chromosomes that other cells in the body contain.  When are gametes produced in organisms?
a.
during meiosis
c.
during replication
b.
during mitosis
d.
during transcription
 

 14. 

Why is meiosis important for sexual reproduction?
a.
Meiosis increases the number of body cells.
c.
Meiosis reduces the chance of genetic variation
b.
Meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes
d.
Meiosis increases the chance of desirable mutations.
 

 15. 

A researcher demonstrates that fish species in a freshwater aquatic environment show genetic variation in each generation.  Which property in fish species explains this variation?
a.
Their body cells divide by mitosis.
c.
Their reproductive cells perform meiosis.
b.
Their structure includes multiple cells.
d.
Their cells include multiple chromosomes.
 

 16. 

Why does an inversion mutation on a chromosome in an egg cell tend to cause more severe genetic disorders than a point mutation in a gene in an egg cell?
a.
The point mutation of a single gene to produce a new protein is not possible.
c.
The inversion mutation can directly alter many traits while the point mutation can directly alter only one.
b.
The point mutation of a single gene to produce a genetic disorder is not possible.
d.
The inversion mutation is passed on to daughter cells while the point mutation is repaired during mitosis.
 

 17. 

The bases in DNA pair by chemical interactions.  How are the base pairs formed differently between the pairs?
a.
Adenine and thymine form two hydrogen bonds, while cytosine and guanine form three hydrogen bonds.
c.
Adenine and thymine form covalent bonds, while cytosine and guanine form hydrogen bonds.
b.
Adenine and thymine form three hydrogen bonds, while cytosine and guanine form two hydrogen bonds.
d.
Adenine and thymine form hydrogen bonds, while cytosine and guanine form covalent bonds.
 

 18. 

DNA is an example of a macromolecule building block of cells.  Which diagram represents the structure of DNA?
mc018-1.jpgmc018-2.jpgmc018-3.jpgmc018-4.jpg
a.
Image A
c.
Image C
b.
Image B
d.
Image D
 

 19. 

Antibotics are frequently used to treat bacterial infections.  Antibiotics function in different ways to interfere with important biological functions in bacteria.  The antibiotic nalidixic acid funtions to block the enzyme responsible for uncoiling an coiling DNA.  How would the action of nalidixic acid allow this chemical to be effective in treating bacterial infrections?
a.
Nalidixic acid causes the cells to divide uncontrollably.
c.
Nalidixic acid produces mutations in the DNA and results in cell death.
b.
Nalidixic acid is toxic to the cells and causes the cells to burst.
d.
Nalidixic acid prevents the production of proteins needed for cell division.
 

 20. 

Hereditary information is passed from parents to offspring through gametes.  Which gene relationship is most likely to result in a portion of offspring that are all recessive males?
a.
a polygenic trait
c.
a sex-linked trait
b.
a dominant trait
d.
a codominant trait
 

 21. 

In eukaryotic cells, DNA replicationoccurs during Interphase.  Why ios DNA replication important?
a.
to provide a method for cytoplasm division
c.
for the transmission of genetic traits from DNA to RNA
b.
to increase the chromosome number in cells
d.
for th eequal distribution of genetic material to daughter cells
 

 22. 

Inpreparation for protein synthesis, what information is transferred between DNA and mRNA?
a.
coding for carbohydrates
c.
coding for amino acids
b.
coding for peptide bonds
d.
coding for lipids
 

 23. 

Tall (T) is dominant to short (t) in pea plants.  If two heterozygous pea plants (Tt x Tt) are crossed, what percentage of the offspring will be heterozygous?
a.
0%
c.
50%
b.
25%
d.
75%
 

 24. 

The table below shows the alleles responsible for blood types in humans.
mc024-1.jpg
What is the probability that a man who is heterozygous for blood type B and a woman with blood type AB could have a child with blood type O?
a.
0%
c.
50%
b.
25%
d.
100%
 

 25. 

A guinea pig breeder owns a pure-breeding black male (BB) and a pure-breeding white female (bb).  What is the probability that offspring from these two guinea pigs will exhibit the black fur phenotype?
a.
25%
c.
75%
b.
50%
d.
100%
 

 26. 

The inheritance of a genetic trait is shown in the pedigree below.
mc026-1.jpg
Based on the pedigree, how is the trait inherited?
a.
sex-linked recessive
c.
autosomal recessive
b.
sex-linked dominant
d.
autosomal dominant
 

 27. 

The transmission of a genetic disorder is shown in the pedigree below.
mc027-1.jpg
Which statement best describes why this trait is sex-linked?
a.
The trait is only inherited from a female carrier.
c.
The trait is expressed only in males and not expressed by females.
b.
The trait is absent in the first generation female.
d.
The trait is absent in the second generation males of the parent generation.
 

 28. 

Meiosis produces daughter cells as shown in the diagram.
mc028-1.jpgWhat stage produces the haploid condition of the four daughter cells?
a.
Replication
c.
Division 1
b.
Recombination
d.
Division 2
 

 29. 

What is the end result of meiosis?
a.
two haploid cells
c.
four haploid cells
b.
two diploid cells
d.
four diploid cells
 

 30. 

In what way do the products of meiosis differ from the products of mitosis?
a.
Meiosis results in no new cells
c.
Meiosis results in two daughter cells
b.
Meiosis results in egg or sperm cells
d.
Meiosis results in cells identical to the parent cell
 

 31. 

Which event during meiosis introduces genetic variation between parents and offspring?
a.
condensation of the chromatin to form distinct chromosomes
c.
crossing over of homologous sequences between matching chromosomes
b.
replication of DNA to make multiple copies of parent genetic material
d.
migration of chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell along microtubules
 

 32. 

Cri de chat is a genetic disorder that occurs when there is a type of mutation inm the fifth chromosome.  This change in chromosomal structure is represented in the diagram below.
mc032-1.jpg
Which type of mutation causes cri du chat?
a.
deletion
c.
inversion
b.
duplication
d.
traslocation
 

 33. 

Sickle-cell disease is a genetic disorder that is caused by a DNA mutation that exchanges one base for another, which changes one amino acid in hemoglobin.  What is this type of mutuation?
a.
deletion
c.
insertion
b.
frameshift
d.
point
 

 34. 

Sickle-cell disease is genetically inherited.  A normal red blood cell and a sickled blood cell are shown below.
mc034-1.jpg
Why do red blood cells have the characteristic sickle shape in this disease?
a.
The cells change shape when the cells move through the circulatory system.
c.
The cells change shape when oxygen binds to hemoglobin in the cells.
b.
The cells have a protein whose structure is changed due to a mutation.
d.
The cell have mutated lipids that are in the cell membranes.
 



 
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