Name: 
 

Heredity Review



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell are composed of DNA.  What is the main function of DNA?
a.
provides energy
c.
transports macromolecules
b.
directs cellular activity
d.
provides structural support
 

 2. 

Which statement describes the structure of DNA?
a.
a single strand of amino acids
c.
a double strand of nucleotides
b.
a single strand of nucleotides
d.
a double strand of amino acids
 

 3. 

Growth rate, length of bones, muscle structure, and hormone levels may all affect human height.  Each of these factors is controlled by many different proteins in body cells.  What type of gene relationship controls human body height?
a.
polygenic
c.
codominant
b.
dominant
d.
incompletely dominant
 

 4. 

DNA is replicated during the cell cycle.  Which event is needed to ensure that the normal number of chromosomes is present in both daughter cells?
a.
G1 phase
c.
mitosis
b.
G2 phase
d.
cytokinesis
 

 5. 

mc005-1.jpg
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
 

 6. 

DNA transcribes the information for protein synthesis in mRNA.  Where does transcription take place?
a.
In the nucleus
c.
attached to ribosomes
b.
in the cytoplasm
d.
bound to amino acids on tRNA
 

 7. 

RNA polymerase facilitates transcription of the genetic information in the DNA molecule into mRNA for protein synthesis.  What part of the DNA molecule codes for proteins?
a.
a phosphate group
c.
a five-carbon sugar
b.
a specific base pair
d.
a nucleotide sequence
 

 8. 

Proteins are produced during translation.  Which molecule carries the protein code that is translated?
a.
DNA
c.
rRNA
b.
mRNA
d.
tRNA
 

 9. 

Hemophilia is a sex-linked genetic disease.  If a male with hemophilia and a homozygous normal female have a female child, what is the probability that the child will be a carrier for hemophilia?
a.
0%
c.
50%
b.
25%
d.
100%
 

 10. 

In snapdragons, if white flowers are crossed with red flowers, all the offspring have pink flowers.  When two pink snapdragons are crossed, some offspring have white flowers, some have red flowers, and some have pink flowers.  Which inheritance pattern do snapdragon flowers exhibit?
a.
sex-linked trait
c.
incomplete dominance
b.
polygenic trait
d.
codominance
 

 11. 

The gene for flower color in some plants displays incomplete dominance.  In one plant species, the genotypes (RR) yield red petals, (rr) yield white petals, and (Rr) yield pink flowers.  What is the probability a cross between two plants heterozygous for flower color produce pink-flowering offspring?
a.
0%
c.
75%
b.
50%
d.
100%
 

 12. 

The pedigree below shows the inheritance of a trait in humans.
mc012-1.jpg

Which pattern of inheritance is shown in this pedigree?
a.
polygenic
c.
simple dominance
b.
codominance
d.
recessive sex-linked
 

 13. 

The pedigree chart below shows the transmission of a genetic trait over several generation.
mc013-1.jpg

What type of inheritance pattern does the pedigree display?
a.
autosomal dominant
c.
sex-linked dominant
b.
autosomal recessive
d.
sex-linked recessive
 

 14. 

The diagram shows the stages of meiosis.
mc014-1.jpg
What process results in egg cells with genetic compositions that are different than the female parent?
a.
replication of chromosomes during interphase prior to meiosis.
c.
Crossing over of chromosomes during prophase I.
b.
Realignment of chromosomes during metaphase II.
d.
Separation of chromosomes  during anaphase I.
 

 15. 

Gametes contain half the number of chromosomes that other cells in the body contain.  When are gametes produced in organisms?
a.
during meiosis
c.
during replication
b.
during mitosis
d.
during transcription
 

 16. 

Why is meiosis important for sexual reproduction?
a.
Meiosis increases the number of body cells.
c.
Meiosis reduces the chance of genetic variation
b.
Meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes
d.
Meiosis increases the chance of desirable mutations.
 

 17. 

A researcher demonstrates that fish species in a freshwater aquatic environment show genetic variation in each generation.  Which property in fish species explains this variation?
a.
Their body cells divide by mitosis.
c.
Their reproductive cells perform meiosis.
b.
Their structure includes multiple cells.
d.
Their cells include multiple chromosomes.
 

 18. 

Below is a picture of five horses from a herd of wild horses in Wyoming.  Large populations of animals that reproduce sexually display different characteristics. 
mc018-1.jpg
Which statment best explains the differences in the appearance of the horses in this population?
a.
Different characteristics are due to the egg and sperm each having two recessive genes.
c.
The traits carried by the male parent are dominant over the traits carried by the female parent.
b.
Different traits come from independent assortment of chromosomes in gamete formation.
d.
Genes in each generation of a population mutate and create different phycisal characteristics.
 

 19. 

Chronic myeloid leukemia is caused by a chromosomal mutation.  An example of this mutation is shown in the diagram below.
mc019-1.jpg
What type of mutation causes chronic myeloid leukemia?
a.
deletion
c.
inversion
b.
duplication
d.
translocation
 

 20. 

A human karyotype highlighting  chromosome 21 is shown in the diagram below.
mc020-1.jpg
Which process is attributed to causing an additional 21st chromosome in this human karyotype?
a.
duplication
c.
nondisjunction
b.
monosomy
d.
translocation
 

 21. 

Genetic disorders can be caused by changes in chromosome structures.  A type of change in chromosome structure is shown in the diagram.
mc021-1.jpg
This diagram displays what type of chromosomal change?
a.
deletion
c.
inversion
b.
duplication
d.
translocation
 

 22. 

Some american farmers are growing crops with seeds that have been genetically modified to release substances toxic to weeds.  These modified crops reduce the need to spray crops with weed-kinning chemicals.  The concern about the use of genetically modified seeds is the chance that the weeds could become resistant to the toxin released by th crops.  Scientists have discovered toxin-resistant weeds in areas that are growing genetically modified crops of soybeans and cotton.  How might genetically modified crops affect adriculture in the United Stated?
a.
Genetically modified crops could contaminate the soil with toxins.
c.
Genetically modified crops could increase food prices an cause American farmers to lose money.
b.
Genetically modified crops could cause weeks to become a difficult problem to control.
d.
Genetically modified crops could be the future of agriculture, an dresistant weeds will be an accepted side effect.
 

 23. 

Through scientific research, genetic technologies have advanced to study of gene sequences.  Which is a main benefit of gene therapy technology?
a.
The ability to cure genetic diseases by replacing defective genes
c.
Understanding how human genes turn on and off to make carbohydrates
b.
The ability to genetically design organisms that have never existed
d.
Making genetically superior plants and animals to benefit the entire world
 

 24. 

DNA contains four different nitrogenous bases.  Which base always pairs with guanine in the DNA molecule?
a.
uracil
c.
adenine
b.
cytosine
d.
thymine
 

 25. 

DNA contains the genetic information of a cell.  A portion of a DNA molecule is shown below.
mc025-1.jpg
Which portion of DNA contains the genetic information?
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 26. 

Hereditary information is passed from parents to offspring through gametes.  Which gene relationship is most likely to result in a portion of offspring that are all recessive males?
a.
a polygenic trait
c.
a sex-linked trait
b.
a dominant trait
d.
a codominant trait
 

 27. 

In eukaryotic cells, DNA replicationoccurs during Interphase.  Why ios DNA replication important?
a.
to provide a method for cytoplasm division
c.
for the transmission of genetic traits from DNA to RNA
b.
to increase the chromosome number in cells
d.
for th eequal distribution of genetic material to daughter cells
 

 28. 

A portion of DNA is transcribed into the mRNA sequence AUGUCAAGCGUA.  The table below show tha amino acids that correspond to codons in an mRNA sequence.
mc028-1.jpg
Which chain of amino acids corresponds to the mRNA sequence?
a.
methionine - serine - serine - valine
c.
isoleucine - phenylalanine - arginine - leucine
b.
methionine - histidine - proline - asparagine
d.
asparagine - arginine - proline - phenylalanine
 

 29. 

The transcription of a DNA strand is shown in the diagram below.
mc029-1.jpg
What is the purpose of this process?
a.
replicate chromosomes before cell division
c.
remove mutations in the genetic code
b.
transfer information for a protein code
d.
provide a source of cell energy
 

 30. 

The inheritance of a mutation is shown in the pedigree below.
mc030-1.jpg
What is the genotype of the male in the F2 generation?
a.
XAXA
c.
XAY
b.
XaXa
d.
XaY
 

 31. 

The pedigree below shows data of an inherited human trait.
mc031-1.jpg
What type of inheritance is displayed in the pedigree?
a.
autosomal recessive
c.
codominant
b.
simple dominance
d.
sex-linked
 

 32. 

What is the end result of meiosis?
a.
two haploid cells
c.
four haploid cells
b.
two diploid cells
d.
four diploid cells
 

 33. 

In what way do the products of meiosis differ from the products of mitosis?
a.
Meiosis results in no new cells
c.
Meiosis results in two daughter cells
b.
Meiosis results in egg or sperm cells
d.
Meiosis results in cells identical to the parent cell
 

 34. 

Which event during meiosis introduces genetic variation between parents and offspring?
a.
condensation of the chromatin to form distinct chromosomes
c.
crossing over of homologous sequences between matching chromosomes
b.
replication of DNA to make multiple copies of parent genetic material
d.
migration of chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell along microtubules
 

 35. 

A diagram of crossing over, which occurs during prophase 1 of meiosis, is shown.
mc035-1.jpg
What is the genetic significance of crossing over during meiosis?
a.
Chromosomal exchange of genetic material greatly increases genetic variation.
c.
The chances of daughter cells receiving abnormal chromosome numbers increase.
b.
Only two of the four gamete cells produced will contain identical chromosomes.
d.
Chromosomes that cross over are less stable than those without new gene combinations.
 

 36. 

During sexual reproduction, gametes fuse to form a zygote.  Sometimes when gametes are formed during meiosis, the chromosomes do not completely separate.  When a gamete with an extra chromosome fuses with another gamete to form a zygote, the result is usually the expression of a genetic disorder.  This occurence is an example of which type of chromosomal change?
a.
duplication
c.
nondisjunction
b.
inversion
d.
translocation
 

 37. 

Sickle-cell disease is a genetic disorder that is caused by a DNA mutation that exchanges one base for another, which changes one amino acid in hemoglobin.  What is this type of mutuation?
a.
deletion
c.
insertion
b.
frameshift
d.
point
 

 38. 

Some human genetic disorders occur during the separation of chromosomes in meiosis.  Klienfelter’s syndrome is when an additional sex chromosome is present in the cells of the offspring.  Which karyotype shows a person with Klienfelter’s syndrome?
mc038-1.jpg
a.
Karyotype A
c.
Karyotype C
b.
Karyotype B
d.
Karyotype D
 

 39. 

In the United States, it is possible for discoverers of gene sequences in organisms to patent those sequences.  This gives the discoverer property rights for the sequence.  many scientists object to this practice.  Which is the strongest scientific argument against allowing a gene sequence to be patented?
a.
Patenting sequences prevents the sequences from being express in nature.
c.
Patenting sequences prevents researchers from studying and creating innovations from the patented sequences.
b.
Patenting sequences prevents the sequences from being used in genetically modified organisms.
d.
Patenting sequences prevents conversationists from understanding the ecological needs of organisms from which the patented swquences come.
 

 40. 

There is boad public debate on the ethics of performing research on human stem cells to find cures for human diseases.  Which statement describes an ethical issue about the use of human stem cells for research?
a.
Some research focuses on stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos.
c.
Some research focuses on thearpies that would noly benefit the person from whom the stem cells came.
b.
Any treatments discovered through such research would likely be too expensive for many paients.
d.
Any treatment discovered through such research would be more effective in treating some patients than others.
 



 
Check Your Work     Start Over