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Independence Review



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Duckweed is a floating plant commonly found growing on the surface of ponds.  During favorable conditions, the population of this plant can increase quickly and cover the entire surface of a pond.
mc001-1.jpg
What effect would an increase in duckweed have on a pond ecosystem?
a.
The duck population would decrease due to a lower food supply.
c.
The underwater plant population would decrease due to decreased sunlight.
b.
The fish population would increase due to an increased food supply.
d.
The algae population would increase due to higher levers of oxygen in the water.
 

 2. 

A lightning strike causes a grass line that burns the producers in a grassland ecosystem.  What would best explain why some of the primary consumers are unaffected by the grassfire?
a.
They live in burrows.
c.
They can survive by only drinking water.
b.
They climbed up trees.
d.
They are able to produce their own food.
 

 3. 

The leatherback sea turtle population is dependent on sandy beaches in which to dig nests  and lay their eggs.  During incubation, the temperature of the sand influences the gender of the hatchlings.  When the sand temperature is above 30 degrees Celsius,more females hatch.  When the sand temperature is below 30 degrees Celsius, more males hatch.  Eggs that incubate in sand temperatures above 34 degrees Celsius may not hatch.  What effect would increasing temperature on Earth have on the sea turtle population?
a.
There will be an increase in sandy coastlines for nest building.
c.
There will be overall lower hatch rates due to higher sand temperatures.
b.
There will be an increase in the number of male turtles that hatch.
d.
There will be overall lower hatch rates due to a lack of water for next building.
 

 4. 

Isle Royale is found in Lake Superior and has limited plant and animal migration due to its location. Moose are thought to have first migrated to Isle Royale around 1900 while wolves arid in the 1940s.  The graphs show the relationships between the umber of these mammals and the diameter of balsam fir trees on the island.
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mc004-2.jpg
Which conclusion best descries the interaction between these populations on the Isle Royale?
a.
The size of balsam fir trees is impacted by how the population of wolves affects the population of moose.
c.
The wolf population decreases as the moose population increases due to the presence of larger balsam fir trees.
b.
The moose population is only impacted by the wolf population and not the growth of the balsam fir population.
d.
The population of wolves indirectly increases when balsam fir trees become smaller in diameter since there are fewer moose.
 

 5. 

Populations of white-tailed deer live in an ecosystem hat has an abundant food supply of woody-type plants with minimal supplies of grasses and weeds. The table shows the typical diet composition of white-tailed deer in this type or ecosystem as well as other animals frequently introduced into this type of ecosystem.
mc005-1.jpg
Introduction of which animal into this type of ecosystem would most likely affect the carrying capacity of the white-tailed deer population?
a.
Cattle
c.
Fallow Deer
b.
Sheep
d.
Nilgai Antelope
 

 6. 

Lake trout are freshwater fish that inhabit many of the Great Lakes.  In the 1830’s humans built canals and locks from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes to increase trade.  The canals and locks enabled invasive sea lamprey to enter the Great Lakes.  In 1958 biologists began applying a chemical into streams flowing into Lake Superior that was specifically toxic to sea lampreys. The graph shows the population of lake trout in Lake Superior during a 65-year period.
mc006-1.jpg
What most likely would have happened if the sea lamprey population was not controlled?
a.
The lake trout might have developed immunity to the sea lamprey.
c.
The lake trout would have migrated to the Atlantic Ocean.
b.
The lake trout might have become extinct in Lake Superior.
d.
The lake trout would have increased reproductively.
 

 7. 

Coral reefs are important to many ocean ecosystems because they provide food and shelter for numerous marine organisms.  Climate changes that lead to increased water temperatures can slow the growth of coral.  Scientists monitor the physical conditions and species distribution of coral reefs and try to temporarily alter conditions when they are harmful to coral reefs. Which of these actions by scientists would best accomplish the goal of preserving coral reefs?
a.
protect the biodiversity of coral reefs
c.
isolate predators from coral reef organisms
b.
restrict regulations concerning coral reefs
d.
identify new species associated with coral reefs
 

 8. 

A fish species depends on high oxygen concentration in lake water.  How could an increase i photosynthetic algae concentration in the water trigger the extinction of this fish species?
a.
The algae could alter water pH by excreting wastes, making oxygen less soluble in the water.
c.
The algae could produce material leading to an increase in decomposer populations, which would deplete available oxygen.
b.
The algae could block enough sunlight that the water cools, reducing the amount of oxygen the water can hold.
d.
The algae could directly compete with the fish for oxygen, which would gradually eliminate the fish due to algae’s ability to reproduce rapidly.
 

 9. 

In an ecosystem, the species that grow and produce the most offspring become the most abundant organisms.  Over time, the dominant species in an ecosystem change as a result of the influence of several factors.  The diagram shows how secondary biological succession that begins in a field in the southeastern United States occurs.
mc009-1.jpg
Which is an accurate description of factors that affected the succession in this particular ecosystem?
a.
A forest fire started the succession, and increased temperature caused successive stages.
c.
Human activities triggered the change, and the amount of available light was responsible for the final stage.
b.
The type of available soil and climate change were the major factors in succession in this system.
d.
Drought, high temperatures, wind storms, and an increase in the depth of the soil were the major factors in this system.
 

 10. 

On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, a volcano in southwest Washington state, erupted.  Which organisms most likely colonized first in the area around the volcanic eruption?
a.
flowering plants
c.
lichens
b.
shrubs
d.
trees
 

 11. 

A tundra food web is shown below.
mc011-1.jpg
What would most likely happen if the lemming population significantly decreased?
a.
The bird population would increase.
c.
The ermine population would decrease.
b.
The rabbit population would increase.
d.
The arctic fox population would decrease.
 

 12. 

A region has average winter temperatures of 2 degrees Celsius.  A climate change results in a drop in winter temperature to an average of -8 degrees Celsius.  A mammal species lives in the region.  Which property in the species would most likely cause the mammal to become extinct as a result of the climate change?
a.
The species grows a thicker winter coat of fur and a thinner summer coat of fur.
c.
The species has relatively unvarying white fur.
b.
The species grows a whiter winter coat of fur and a browner summer coat of fur.
d.
The species has relatively unvarying thin fur.
 

 13. 


The diagram shows an example of primary succession.
mc013-1.jpg
Which factor is responsible for beginning the process of change in the ecosystem from Diagram 1 to Diagram 4?
a.
climate cooling in the area
c.
breakdown of rocks by pioneer plants
b.
organic matter from producers
d.
action of roots by large trees in the area
 

 14. 

Primary succession occurs in a place where an ecosystem has not been established.  Which occurrence represents a first step in the process of primary succession?
a.
a forest of pine trees develops
c.
a forest of shade trees develops
b.
grasses and shrubs appear
d.
lichens appear on bare rocks
 

 15. 

Which of these factors is most important for reestablishing plants and trees on an abandoned farm?
a.
ATP and xylem
c.
glucose and vitamins
b.
oxygen and nitrogen
d.
sunlight and carbon dioxide
 

 16. 

Drought in an ecosystem results in decreased populations of primary consumers.  What would best explain the decrease in primary consumers?
a.
A decrease in wind speeds
c.
An increase in airborne pathogens
b.
A decrease in primary producers
d.
An increase in secondary consumers
 

 17. 

White-tailed deer prefer to live in wooded areas.  Their diet consists of grasses, shrubs, and other small forage plants.  White-tailed deer are prey to animals such as coyotes, bobcats, and wolves.  These deer are also the most important hosts for a parasite, the deer tick, and are critical for deer tick survival.  Larvae of the deer tick feed on birds and smaller mammals.  How would the carrying capacity of other organisms in the ecosystem change if the white-tailed deer population decreased?
a.
The carrying capacity of shrubs would decrease.
c.
The carrying capacity of deer tick larvae would increase.
b.
The carrying capacity of coyotes would increase.
d.
The carrying capacity of adult deer ticks would decrease.
 

 18. 

The spring-fed San Marcos River and Spring Lake in central Texas are home to the endangered fountain darter. Fountain darters require dense bottom plant cover for hiding and breeding.  The giant ramshorn snail is an invasive, non-native species that eats large amounts of fountain darter habitat plants.  The giant ramshorn snail population increases during times when spring flows are low.  If a lengthy drought occurs in this region, what will most likely be the effect on fountain darters?
a.
Grazing species will disappear, leaving more habitat cover for fountain darters.
c.
Fountain darters will adapt to the environmental change by producing hybrid species.
b.
Due to habitat loss from giant ramshorn snail competition, fountain darters may become extinct.
d.
The drought will cause fountain darters to seek other types of cover for reproduction.
 

 19. 

Eutrophication can occur when a lake, pond, or slow moving river acquires a high concentration of nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates.  Often, this increase in nutrients is the result of run-off during rain storms.  How can eutrophication affect the life of organisms in one of these environments?
a.
Plants and algae decrease from the addition of fertilizers.
c.
Bottom-dwelling plants and animals decrease in number from an increase in algae and oxygen.
b.
Aquatic animals increase in number due to the increased food supply.
d.
Plant and animal biodiversity decreases from increased levels of organic matter and decomposing organisms.
 

 20. 

The figures below show the changes in a pond over time.
mc020-1.jpg
What event is responsible for the initial changes in the pond?
a.
colonization of the pond by plants
c.
a change in water temperature of the pond
b.
accumulation of sediment in the pond
d.
increased activity of decomposers in the pond
 

 21. 

Which event would led to primary succession?
a.
the logging of a forest
c.
an abandoned farm
b.
the melting of a glacier
d.
an open area caused by a forest fire
 

 22. 

The kudzu plant was imported into the United States as an ornamental plant and was later planted to help reduce soil erosion.  Kudzu is a vine that grows in a wide range of conditions and soil types.  Due to its rapid growth, the plant has taken over many native plant species, resulting in
a.
a decrease in biodiversity.
c.
an increase in surface runoff.
b.
a decrease in rate of cellular respiration.
d.
an increase in habitat for native species.
 

 23. 

The spotted owl is an endangered species found in the northwestern United States.  Which environmental condition would most likely lead to the extinction of the spotted owl?
a.
a drought that lasts for one year
c.
the immigration of a new species of prey
b.
the clear-cutting of wildlife habitat
d.
an abnormally cold winter
 

 24. 

Which environmental disturbance would most likely result in lichens colonizing an area?
a.
the burning of a forest
c.
the melting of a glacier that exposes rock
b.
abandoning farm fields for many years
d.
clearing a meadow for new construction
 



 
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